Plants in Catesby's Natural History

A listing of the plants drawn and described by Mark Catesby in The Natural History of Carolina, Florida and the Bahama Islands (published in 2 volumes and an Appendix)

A   B   C   D   E   F   G   H   I   J   K   L   M   N   O   P   Q   R   S   T   U   V   W   X   Y   Z  

Current Scientific Name: Acer rubrum L.

Current Common Name: Red Maple

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 62

Catesby Name: 

The Red Flowering Maple - Acer Virginianum, folio majore, subtus argenteo, supra viridi splendente (Pluk. Alma.)

Description: 

In February, before the leaves appear, the little red blossoms open, and continue in flower about three weeks; and are then succeeded by the keys, which are also red, and, with the flowers, continue about six weeks, adorning the woods earlier than any other forest trees in Carolina. They endure our English climate as well as they do their native one; as appears by many large ones in the garden of Mr. Bacon at Hoxton.

Location: 

Carolina

Current Scientific Name: Amyris elemifera L.

Current Common Name: Sea Torchwood

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 33

Catesby Name: 

Frutex trifolius resinosus; floribus tetra-petalis albis racemosis

Description: 

This Shrub grows to the height of about six feet; producing trifoliated, pointed, stiff, shining leaves, grow-ing opposite to one another on footstalks two inches long; and at the ends of the branches grow four or five slender stalks set with many very small white flowers.

Other Information: 

Lower drawing.

Current Scientific Name: Anacardium occidentale L.

Current Common Name: Cashew

Catesby Reference: Appendix plate 9

Catesby Name: 

The Cushew Tree - Pomifera feu potius prunifera Indica...

Description: 

... nut not unlike, in form and size, to a hare's kidney ... containing a kernel resembling an almond in size and taste. The shell inclosing this kernal is double, and contains an acrimonious caustick inflammable oil.

Location: 

"Jamaica, Hispaniola, and many other places of America within the Tropicks"

Current Scientific Name: Annona glabra L.

Current Common Name: Pond Apple, Cow Apple, Monkey Apple, Corkwood

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 64

Catesby Name: 

Anona maxima, foliis latis fructu maximo luteo conoide, cortice glabro

Description: 

This shrub or small Tree grows to the height of about sixteen feet, with a small trunk, and smooth greenish bark; the leaves thick, stiff, and shaped like those of a lemon ...

Current Scientific Name: Annona glabra L.

Current Common Name: 

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 67

Catesby Name: 

Anona fructu viridi lavi, Pyri inversi forma

Description: 

"The fruit of some of the sorts of Anona have, from their taste, obtained among the English the names of Custard-Apple, Sugar-Apple and Sour-Sops."

Location: 

Hispaniola, Ilathera, Andros Isles &c.

Other Information: 

Ewan (1974) identified the plate as Annona cherimola Mill. but Howard & Staples, Wilbur (1990) and Reveal (2009) identify it as Annona glabra. Wilbur bases this on the number of petals (Catesby says 6 whereas A. cherimola has 5) and also on location. A. cherimola is not likely to be found in the Bahamas.

Current Scientific Name: Annona reticulata L.

Current Common Name: Custard Apple, Netted Pawpaw

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 86

Catesby Name: 

Anona maxima, foliis oblongis, angustis; fructu maximo luteo conoide; cortice glabro in areolas angulares distincto

Description: 

The fruit, when ripe, is of a roundish conic form, covered with angular protuberances, within which is a sweet insipid pulp, with several shining black seeds lodged therein. The fruit of this Tree is esteemed not unwholesome, and are eat by some people; but they serve mostly for food to Guana's...

Location: 

Bahama Islands

Current Scientific Name: Aristolochia serpentaria L.

Current Common Name: Virginia Snakeroot, Black Snakeroot

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 29

Catesby Name: 

The Snake-Root of Virginia - Aristolochia pistolochia, seu Serpentaria Virginia caule nodoso

Description: 

The usual price of this excellent root, both in Virginia and Carolina, is about six pence a pound when dryed, which is money hardly earned. Yet the Negro slaves (who only dig it) employ much of the little time allowed them by their masters in search of it; which is the cause of there being seldom found any but very small plants.

Location: 

Virginia and Carolina

Current Scientific Name: Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal

Current Common Name: Pawpaw, Dog-banana, Indian-banana

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 85

Catesby Name: 

Anona fructu lutescente, laevi, scrotum Arietis referente

Description: 

"All parts of the Tree have a rank, if not a fetid smell: nor is the fruit relished but by very few, except negroes. These Trees grow usually in low shady swamps, and in a very fat soil."

Other Information: 

Catesby's plate is the lectotype for Annona triloba L. and is also referenced in Miller's Gard. Dict., ed. 8 in 1768.

Current Scientific Name: Avicennia germinans (L.) L.

Current Common Name: Black Mangrove

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 85

Catesby Name: 

Frutex Bahamnsis foliis oblongis succulentis, fructu subrotundo unicum nucleum continente

Description: 

This grows to the size of a small Tree; the leaves stand by pairs, on foot-stalks about an inch long: they are long, thick, and succulent.

Other Information: 

Ewan (1974) shows this as Avicennia nitida Jacq..

Howard & Staples (1983) and later reviewers list A. germinans (L.) L. A. nitida is now considered a synonym.

Current Scientific Name: Banara minutiflora (A.Rich) Sleumer

Current Common Name: Banara

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 42

Catesby Name: 

Frutex foliis oblongis serratis alternis, Acaciae floribus luteis, fructu brevi, calyculato viridi

Description: 

This Shrub grows usually to the height of eight or ten feet, with many tough stalks growing in alternate bendings; the leaves are serrated, and grow alternately at the angles of every bending: the flowers grow in spikes, at the ends of the smaller branches ; are pappous, globular, and sweet-scented. The fruit is about the size of a large pea, and shaped like an acorn, except that the cup is divided into four or five sections.

Location: 

Bahamas

Other Information: 

Right picture.

Ewan (1974) identifies plate 42 as Banara reticulata Griseb. and Britton and Millspaugh (Bahama Fl. (Britton & Millspaugh) 284. 1920) cite Catesby 2: pl. 42. under B. reticulata which is a synonym of B. minutiflora. (The name B. minutifolia is based on Ilex minutiflora A.Rich (1845) which predates B. reticulata.)

Howard & Staples (1983), Wilbur (1990) and Reveal (1990) all identify the plate as B. minutiflora (A.Rich.) Sleumer.

Current Scientific Name: Bignonia capreolata L.

Current Common Name: Crossvine

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 82

Catesby Name: 

Bignonia Americana capreolis donata siliqua breviore (Tournefort Inst.)

Description: 

These Plants usually grow on the shady banks of rivers, rising with many slender pliant stems to the height of twenty, and sometimes thirty feet; being supported by Trees and Shrubs, growing near them, on which they climb and clasp their tendrils.

Location: 

Virginia and Carolina

Other Information: 

Ewan lists Anisostichus capreolata (L.) Bureau (a synonym of B. capreolata) but the other reviewers show B. capreolata. Wilbur explains that in ICBN 1988, p. 265 Bignonia L. is listed as conserved with B. capreolata L. as its type.

Current Scientific Name: Borrichia arborescens (L.) DC.

Current Common Name: Tree Seaside Tansy, Silver Sea-oxeye Daisy

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 93

Catesby Name: 

Chrysanthemum Bermudense Leucoii foliis virentibus crassis (Pluk. Alm. 102)

Description: 

The flowers grow singly at the ends of the branches, on footstalks of four inches long.

Location: 

Bahamas

Current Scientific Name: Bourreria ovata Miers

Current Common Name: Strong Back

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 79

Catesby Name: 

Pittoniae similis, Laureolae foliis, floribus albis, baccis rubris

Description: 

Shrub rises to the height of twelve feet, more or less; the leaves grow alternately on long footstalks; the flowers grow many together on footstalks half an inch long, on the tops of the branches: they are tubulous, monopetalous, and divided round the edges by five sections, as is the calix The flowers are succeeded by spherical red berries, of the size represented, inclosing several seeds...

Location: 

Bahamas

Other Information: 

Upper right drawing

Ewant (1974 p. 98), Howard & Staples (1983) and Wilbur (1990) list B. ovata Miers - Miers cites Catesby Volume II plate 79 under Bourreria havanensis in Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4: 3: 207 in 1869. Sargent in Silva (Sargent) 6: 77 in 1894, lists Ehretia bourreria L. (in part) and Bourreria ovata Miers as synonyms of B. havanensis Miers and adds The Strong Back was first described in the Natural History of Carolina by Mark Catesby, who discovered it on the Bahama Islands... Schultz in Symb. Antill. (Urban) 7: 55 in 1911 refers Catesby to B. ovata Miers.

Reveal (2009) lists B. baccata Raf. for the upper right and also lists Magnolia virginiana L.

Current Scientific Name: Bursera simaruba (L.) Sarg.

Current Common Name: Gumbo Limbo

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 30

Catesby Name: 

The Gum-elimy Tree - Terebinthus major Betulae cortice, fructu triangulari (Hist. Jam. Vol. II p.89 Tab. 199)

Description: 

The blossoms (which I did not see) are succeeded by purple-coloured berries, bigger than large Peas, hanging in clusters on a stalk of about five inches long.

This Tree produces a large quantity of Gum, of a brown colour, and of the consistence of Turpentine. It is esteemed a good vulnerary; and is much used for Horses.

Location: 

Bahamas

Other Information: 

Ewan (1974) identified this plate as Elaphrium simaruba (L.) Rose which is considered a synonym of B. simaruba.

Current Scientific Name: Caesalpinia bahamensis Lam.

Current Common Name: Brasiletto

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 51

Catesby Name: 

Brasiletto - Pfeudo-Santalum croceum (Hist. Jam. Vol. II. p. 184.)

Description: 

...the branches are slender, and full of small prickles; the leaves are pinnated ; the lobes growing opposite to each other, broad at their ends, with one notch. The flowers are white...

Location: 

Bahamas and other parts of the West Indies

Other Information: 

Upper plant.

Published in Encycl. (Lamarck) 1: 461 in 1785. Lamarck cites Catesby's Natural History Volume II plate 51. Also classified and cited by Britton and Millspaugh in Bahama Fl. (Britton & Millspaugh) 173 1920 as C. bahamensis Lam.

Cited by Linnaeus in Sp. Pl. 1: 380 in 1753 under C. brasiliensis but in Symb. Antill. (Urban) 2: 286 it was argued that Linnaeus' C. brasiliensis was really three different species and the one that Catesby's plate represented was C. bahamensis Lam.

Ewan (1974), Howard & Staples (1983), Wilbur (1990) and Reveal (2009) list the plate as C. bahamensis Lam.

Current Scientific Name: Callicarpa americana L.

Current Common Name: American Beautyberry

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 47

Catesby Name: 

Frutex baccifer, verticillatus, folis scabris latis dentatis, & conjugatis; baccis purpureis dense congestis

Description: 

from every tuft of flowers grow, opposite to each other, a pair of serrated rough leaves; the berries which succeed the flowers, grow in clusters, so closely connected, that none of their footstalks can be perceived without separating them; which then discovers them to be held together by many small branching stalks...

Location: 

... woods near Charles-Town in Carolina.

Current Scientific Name: Calycanthus floridus L.

Current Common Name: Sweetshrub, Spicebush, Carolina Allspice

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 46

Catesby Name: 

Frutex corni foliis conjugatis; floribus inflar Anemones flellate, petalis crais, rigidis,colore fordide rubente; cortice aromatico

Description: 

This Shrub usually grows about eight or ten feet high. The leaves are set opposite to each other. The flowers resemble, in form, those of the Star-Anemony, composed of many stiff copper-colour'd petals, enclosing a tuft of short yellow stamina. The flowers are succeeded by a roundish fruit, flat at top.

Location: 

...grow in the remote and hilly parts of Carolina, but no where amongst the inhabitants.

Current Scientific Name: Campsis radicans (L.) Seem.

Current Common Name: Trumpet Vine, Cow-itch

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 65

Catesby Name: 

The Trumpet-Flower - Bignonia, Fraxini foliis, coccineo flore minore

Description: 

These Plants climb upon Trees; on which they run a great height; and are frequently seen to cover the dead trunks of tall trees. The leaves are winged, consisting of many serrated lobes, standing by couples, opposite to each other on one rib. In May, June, July and August, it produces bunches of red flowers, somewhat like the common Foxglove.

The humming birds delight to feed on these flowers; and, by thrusting themselves too far into the flower, are sometimes caught.

Current Scientific Name: Canella winterana (L.) Gaertn.

Current Common Name: Wild Cinnamon, Winter's Bark

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 50

Catesby Name: 

Winter's Bark - Hist. Jam. Vol. II. p. 87.

Description: 

...the flowers, which are pentapetalous, come forth in clusters at the ends of the branches : they are red and very fragrant, and are succeeded by round berries, in size of large peas, green; and, when ripe (which is in February) purple, containing three shining black seeds, flat on one side, otherwise not unlike in shape to a Kidney-bean...

Location: 

Bahamas

Current Scientific Name: Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet

Current Common Name: Pignut Hickory

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 38

Catesby Name: 

The Pignut - Nux Juglans Caroliniensis fructu minimo putamine levi

Description: 

The branches of this Tree spread more, are smaller, and the leaves not so broad as those of the Hiccory; nor is the bark so wrinkled.

Other Information: 

Fruit

Ewan listed the smaller nut as C. cordiformis (Wangenh.) K. Koch: This identification applies to the fruit but the leaves are those of C. glabra Mill., according to Dr. Donald E. Stone...

Howard & Staples concurred.

Wilbur and Reveal selected C. glabra Mill.

Sargent states (1895, 7:167) that the "earliest authentic account of Hicoria glabra, with an excellent figure of the nut, appeared in Catesby's Natural History of Carolina..." (Wilbur).

Current Scientific Name: Carya tomentosa (Lam.) Nutt.

Current Common Name: Mockernut Hickory, White Hickory

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 38

Catesby Name: 

The Hiccory Tree - Nux juglans alba Virginiensis (Park. Theat. 1414)

Description: 

The kernel is sweet and well tasted, from which the Indians draw a wholesome and pleasant oil, storing them up for their winter-provision. The hogs and many wild animals receive great benefit from them. The wood is course-grained; yet of much use for many things belonging to agriculture. Of the saplings or young trees are made the best hoops for tobacco, rice and tar-barrels: And for the fire no wood in the northern parts of America is in so much request.

Other Information: 

This is the branch, not the fruit.

Howard & Staples list it as C. alba (L.) K.Koch which is based on Juglans alba L., a synonym of C. tomentosa.

Ewan (1974) and Wilbur (1990) list it as C. tomentosa (Poir) Nutt. and Reveal (2009) as C. tomentosa (Lam.) Nutt. The latter really the same (PlantList shows C. tomentosa (Lam. ex Poir) Nutt.)

Current Scientific Name: Casasia clusiifolia (Jacq.) Urb.

Current Common Name: Sevenyear Apple

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 59

Catesby Name: 

The Seven Years Apple - Arbor Jasmini, floribus albis, foliis Cenchranmideae, fructu ovali, seminibus parvis nigris mucilagine involutis

Description: 

This Shrub grows from six to ten feet high with a stem seldom bigger than one's wrist having a wrinkled light coloured bark. The leaves grow in clusters, and are about the bigness of those of our common laurel, having a wide notch or indenture at the end, which is broadest. These leaves are very thick and stiff; and usually curl up...

Location: 

I know not for what reason the inhabitants of the Bahama Island (where it grows) call it the Seven Years Apple.

Current Scientific Name: Castanea pumila (L.) Mill.

Current Common Name: Allegheny Chinkapin, Chinquapin, Northern Catalpa

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 9

Catesby Name: 

The Chinkapin - Castanea pumila Virginiana, fructu racemato parvo in singulis capsulis echinatis unico (D. Banister)

Description: 

It is a Shrub which seldom grows higher than sixteen feet, and usually not above eight or ten: the body commonly eight or ten inches thick, and irregular; the bark rough and scaly ; the leaves are serrated, and grow alternately, of a dark green, their back-sides being of a greenish white...

Current Scientific Name: Catalpa bignonioides Walter

Current Common Name: Southern Catalpa, Indian Bean

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 49

Catesby Name: 

The Catalpa-Tree - Bignonia Urucu foliis flore sordide albo, intus maculis purpureis & luteis asperso, filiqua longissima & angustimssima

Description: 

...is usually a small Tree, seldom rising above 23 feet in height. The bark smooth: the wood soft and spongy; the leaves shaped like those of the Lilac, but much larger, some being ten inches over. In May it produces spreading bunches of tubulous flowers, like the common Fox glove, white, only variegated with a few reddish purple spots and yellow streaks on the inside. The cadix is of a copper colour. These flowers are succeeded by round pods, about the thickness of ones finger, fourteen inches in length...

Current Scientific Name: Catesbaea spinosa L.

Current Common Name: Lilythorn

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 100

Catesby Name: 

Catesbaea - Frutex Spinosus Buxi foliis, plurimis simul nascentibus; flore tetrapetaloide, pendulo, sordide flavo, tubo longissimo; fructu ovali croceo, semina parva continente

Description: 

It is not without reluctancy, that I here exhibit a plant with my own name annexed to it; but the regard and obligations I owe to my learned friend Dr. J. F. Gronovius of Leyden, who was pleased some years since to honour me, tho undeservedly, with the title of this genus, obliges me not to suppress it.,[quote: In the year 1726 there was several young plants of it raised by many to whom I distributed seeds, that I brought back from Providence; but none were so successful in raising it, as Mr. Powers, a skilful and curious gardiner, at Mr. Blathwait's of Derham, near Bath, who raised a plant which produced many fair and ample blossoms, some specimens of which he sent to my friend Mr. Peter Collinson, in the year 1734.

Location: 

Near the Town of Nassaw, in Providence, one of the Bahama Islands, I saw two of these Trees growing, which were all I ever saw...

Current Scientific Name: Catopsis berteroniana (Schult. & Schult. f.) Mez

Current Common Name: Powdery Strap Airplant

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 77

Catesby Name: 

Viscum Caryophylloides, Aloes foliis viridibus acuminatis, floribus racemosis luteis

Description: 

The root of this Plant is tuberous, having many small fibres, which grow spreading on rocks, and adhere closely to the bare surface of them, and sometimes to the trunks and limbs of Trees... It is usually from one to two feet in height: its leaves and manner of growing resemble those of an Aloe, but are more concave, and spotted with white on both fides, resembling mould. From the middle of the leaves arose a stiff stalk, which divided at the top into seven or eight smaller stalks, on which were placed alternately, on short footstalks, yellow flowers...

Current Scientific Name: Chionanthus virginicus L.

Current Common Name: White Fringetree, Grancy Gray-beard, Old-man’s Beard

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 68

Catesby Name: 

The Fringe Tree - Amelanchier Virginiana, Lauro cerasi folio (H. s. Pet. Rai Suppl. App. 241), Arbor Zeylanica, cotini foliis, subtus lanugine villosis, floribus albis, cuculi modo laciniatis (Pluk. Alm. p. 44. Phyt. Tab. 24r. f. 4.)

Description: 

It mounts from six to ten feet high, usually with a crooked irregular small stem. Its leaves are of a light green, and shaped like those of the Orange. In May it produces bunches of white flowers hanging on branched footstalks, of half an inch long. Each flower has four narrow thin petals about two inches long. To these succeed round dark blue berries, of the size of sloes.

Location: 

On the banks of rivulets and running streams this shrub is most commonly found.

Current Scientific Name: Chrysobalanus icaco L.

Current Common Name: Coco Plum

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 25

Catesby Name: 

The Cocoa Plum - Frutex Contin, fere folio, crassom in summitae deliquium patiente, fructu ovali caerulo, officulum angulosum continente

Description: 

This is a Shrub, which grows from five to ten feet high; not with a single trunk, but with several small stems rising from the ground, they growing many together in thickets. The flowers grow in bunches, are small and white...

Location: 

Cuba

Current Scientific Name: Cissus obovata Vahl

Current Common Name: West Indian Treebine, Spoonleaf Treebine

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 48

Catesby Name: 

Frutex Rubo similis, non spinosus, capreolatus; fructu racemoso caruleo Mori-formi

Description: 

This twining Plant supports itself by trees and shrubs that grow near it, on which they twist, and are assisted by small tendrils : from the main stem grow alternately smaller branches, with trifoliated leaves, which are indented round the edges, on footstalks an inch long. The flowers are very small, in form of a cup, divided into four pointed petals, growing in spikes many together, on very short stalks.

Location: 

Bahamas

Other Information: 

Ewan (1974), Howard & Staples (1983) and Wilbur (1990) listed the plate as Cissus tuberculata Jacq. but this is a synonym of C. obovata Vahl, the name that Reveal (2009) lists.

Current Scientific Name: Cleistes divaricata (L.) Ames

Current Common Name: Rosebud Orchid, Spreading Pogonia

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 58

Catesby Name: 

The Lilly-leaf'd Hellebore - Helleborine Lilii folio caulem ambiente, flore unico hexapetalo, tribus petalis longis, angustis obscure purpureis, caeteris brevioribus roseis

Description: 

This Plant has a bulbous root; from which arises a single stem of about a foot high, encompassed by the bottom part of one leaf as by a sheath. At the top grows the flower, composed of six petala, three of them long, and of a dark purple colour; the other three shorter, of a pale rose colour, and commonly turning back...

Location: 

"wet places"

Other Information: 

Upper drawing.

Current Scientific Name: Clethra alnifolia L.

Current Common Name: Summersweet, Sweet Pepperbush

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 66

Catesby Name: 

Alni folia Americana serrata, floribus pentapetalis albis, in spicam dispositis (Pluk. Phyt. Tab. 115. f. I.)

Description: 

In July there shoots from the ends of the branches, spikes of white flowers, four or five inches long; Each flower consists of five petals, and a tuft of small stamina. These flowers are thick set on footstalks a quarter of an inch long, and are succeeded by small oval pointed capsula's, containing many chaffy seeds.

Location: 

This shrub grows in moist places, and sometimes in water

Current Scientific Name: Clusia rosea Jacq.

Current Common Name: Florida Clusia, Scotch Attorney, Autograph Tree

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 99

Catesby Name: 

The Balsam-Tree - Cenchramidea Arbor saxis adnascens,obrotundo pingui folio; fructu pomiforma, in plurimas capsulas granula ficulnea stilo columnari octogono praeduro adhaerentia continentes diviso; Balsamum fundens (Pluk. Almag.)

Description: 

Trees usually grow about six inches thick, and twenty feet in height, having a smooth light coloured bark. The leaves grow by pairs ; they are thick and succulent, having a large rib in the middle, from which run transversely narrow strait lines, parallel and close to one another. In June, it produces ample fair flowers, composed of fix white petals, stained with purple: in the middle of the flower is formed the rudiment of the fruit, which is almost spherical, and increases to the size of a middling apple...

Location: 

Bahamas

Other Information: 

Published in Enum. Syst. Pl. 34 in 1760 - Jacquin cites Catesby's Natural History Volume II Plate 99. Linnaeus also cites Catesby in Sp. Pl., ed. 2 2: 1495.

Current Scientific Name: Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L.

Current Common Name: Seagrape

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 96

Catesby Name: 

The Mangrove Grape-Tree - Prunus marithia racemosa, folio rotundo glabro; fructu minore purpureo (Hist. Jam. Vol. II p. 129.)

Description: 

The trunk of these Trees are frequently two feet thick, and seldom aspire above the height of twenty or twenty-five feet; the bark is smooth, and of a brown colour; the leaves are set alternately, they are thick, broad, and almost round; and are eight, and some ten inches diameter; their middle ribs are large, and of a purple colour, as are the smaller veins: below the pedicles of the leaves, the stalks are surrounded with a thin purple skin, or membrane, an inch in width. The flower stalks are usually ten inches long, thick, succulent, and spongy...

Dampier says the wood of this tree makes a strong fire, therefore used by the privateers to harden the steels of their guns, when faulty.

Location: 

Bahamas

Current Scientific Name: Cocculus carolinus (L.) DC.

Current Common Name: Carolina Moonseed, Carolina Coralbead

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 51

Catesby Name: 

Smilax (forte) lenis, folio anguloso hederaceo

Other Information: 

Linnaeus cited plate 51 for Cissampelos smilacina which is now considered a synonym of Cocculus carolinus (L.) DC. (Linnaean Typification Project).

The basionym of Cocculus carolinus is Menispermum carolinum L. but Linnaeus made no references for that taxon. Gray (Syn. Fl. N. Amer.)cites Catesby for Cissampelos smilacina L. and refers it to Cocculus carolinus. Others however, have referred it to Menispermum canadense L.

Ewan (1974 p.93) lists it as Menisperumum canadense.

Howard & Staples, Wilbur and Reveal all list it as Cocculus carolinus.

Howard & Staples and Wilbur point out that the fruits of Cocculus carolinus are red as in Catesby's description, whereas those of Menispermum canadense are black.

Current Scientific Name: Colubrina elliptica (Sw.) Brizicky & W.L.Stern

Current Common Name: Soldierwood

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 10

Catesby Name: 

Red-Wood - Frutex Lauri folio pendulo, fructu tricocco, semine nigro splendente

Description: 

This Tree usually grows from sixteen to twenty foot high, with a small trunk, and slender branches; the leaves shaped not unlike those of the Bay-tree; three black seeds are contained in every capsule...

Location: 

the rocks of most of the Bahama Islands.

Other Information: 

Identified originally (Ewan 1974 p.92) as Colubrina reclinata (L'Hér.) Brongn. This is now considered to be a synomym of C. Elli.

Current Scientific Name: Commelina erecta L.

Current Common Name: Erect Dayflower, Whitemouth Dayflower, Widow's Tears

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 62

Catesby Name: 

Pseudo Phalangium ramosum

Description: 

This Plant trails on the ground. The top of each stalk terminates in a single hollow leaf, which clasps almost close ; and from its footstalk arises short round pedicles, supporting the flowers, which consist of two blue petals, standing erect on one side, and one very small white petal lying flat facing them...

Other Information: 

Ewan (1974) and Howard & Staples (1983) list the plate as Commelina virginica L. but Wilbur (1990) and Reveal (2009) identify it as C. erecta L. Wilbur bases this on the color of the petals, C. virginica has all blue petals whereas Catesby describes 2 blue and one white petal which fits with C. erecta.

Current Scientific Name: Conocarpus erectus L.

Current Common Name: Button Mangrove, Buttonwood

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 33

Catesby Name: 

Button-Wood (Hist. Jam. Vol. I. p. 18) - Manghala arbor Curassavica, foliis Salignis

Description: 

As Sir Hans Sloane, in his natural history of Jamaica, has accurately described this tree, I conceive it necessary to add only what I know more concerning it. They grow always near the sea and in salt water; and are found on all the coasts of America between the Tropicks in greater plenty than any other shrub...

Other Information: 

Upper drawing.

First published in Sp. Pl. 1: 176 in 1753 but refers to Sloane and no reference to Catesby. Catesby refers back to Sloane in the description and drawing.

Catesby cited in Sp. Pl., ed. 4 1(2): 995 in 1797, and Syst. Veg. (ed. 14) 217 in 1784.

Current Scientific Name: Cordia sebestena L.

Current Common Name: Largeleaf Geigertree

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 91

Catesby Name: 

Caryophyllus spurius inodorus, Flotio subrotundo scabro, flore racemoso hexapetaloide coccineo speciocissimo (Hist. Jam. Vol. II. p. 20. T. 164.)

Description: 

These shrubby Trees grow from eight to twelve feet in height, and are usually four or five inches thick, with a yellowish brown bark; the leaves are placed alternately: they are of a dark green colour, and very rough, shaped like an heart.

Location: 

Bahamas

Current Scientific Name: Cornus florida L.

Current Common Name: Flowering Dogwood

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 27

Catesby Name: 

The Dogwood Tree - Cornus mas Virginiana, flosculis in corymbo digestis, perianthio tetrapetalo albo radiatim cinctis (Pluk. Almag. 120)

Description: 

In Virginia I found one of these Dogwood Trees with flowers of a rose colour, which was luckily blown down, and many of its branches had taken root, which I transplanted into a garden. That with the white flower Mr. Fairchild has in his garden.

Other Information: 

Ewan (1974) and Howard and Staples (1983) list this as C. florida f. rubra which is synonomous with C. florida. Ewan said This is the pink-flowered forma rubra, first reported and illustrated here.

Current Scientific Name: Croton eluteria (L.) W.Wright

Current Common Name: Cascarilla, Sweet Bark

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 46

Catesby Name: 

The Ilathera Bark - An Ricinoides Aeleagni folio ?

Description: 

...seldom above ten feet high, and rarely so big as a man's leg; though it is probable, that, before these islands were exhausted of so much of it, that it grew to a larger size. The leaves are long, narrow, and sharp-pointed, and of a very pale light green colour : at the ends of the smaller branches grow spikes of small, hexapetalous, white flowers...

Location: 

These Shrubs grow plentifully on most of the Bahama Islands...

Other Information: 

Linnaeus cited Catesby plate 46 under Clutia cascarilla L. and the Linnaean Plant Name Typification Project notes that it is the lectotype for both Croton cascarilla (L.) L. and its basionym Clutia cascarilla. However Ewan (1974), Howard & Staples (1983) & Wilbur (1990) all list the plate as Croton eluteria (L.) Sw. Howard & Staples refer to Millspaugh in Praenunciae Bahamenses II: Contributions to a flora of the Bahamian archipelago, published in Publ. Field Columb. Mus., Bot. Ser. 2: 289 in 1909. Millspaugh says No plant agreeing with the plate of Catesby has been found. Wherever we have seen the bark gathered for market, or for native use, it has been called Sweetwood bark and was taken from the stems and branches of Croton eluteria (L.) Sw. (Clutia eluteria Linn.) He argues that Catesby's plate is inaccurate and that his description indicate(s) plainly that he depicts in his plate 46 the plant from which the common product (bark) is collected gathered. This must bear the name Croton eluteria (L.) Sw. He adds that Linnaeus said that the Sweet bark and Cascarilla are the same... and... that Cascarilla bark is the Ricinoides elaeagni folio of Catesby. He concludes There remain not the least doubt but that Linnaeus' Clutia Cascarilla is synonymous with is Clutia Eluteria, and that his Croton Cascarilla of the second edition of the Species Plantarum... (is) synonymous with the Croton linearis of Jacquin.

Reveal (2009) lists Croton eluteria (L.) W.Wright which was published in 1787 and therefore takes precedence over Croton eluteria (L.) Sw. (1788). (Note that Tropicos lists the accepted name for Croton eluteria (L.) Sw. as Croton glabellus L. and WCSP (KEW) shows the accepted name as Croton nitens Sw, However WCSP shows Clutia cascarilla L. and Croton cascarilla (L.) L. as heterotypic synonyms of Croton eluteria (L.) W.Wright.)

Current Scientific Name: Cypripedium acaule Aiton

Current Common Name: Moccasin Flower, Pink Lady's Slipper Orchid

Catesby Reference: Appendix plate 3

Catesby Name: 

Calceolus flore maximo rubente, purpureis venis notato, foliis amplis hirsutis crematis, radice dentis canini

Description: 

This plant produces the most elegant flower of all the Helleborine tribe, and is in great esteem with the North-American Indians for decking their hair, &c. They call it the Moccasin flower, which also signifies, in their language, a shoe, or slipper.

Other Information: 

Ewan (1974) says The plate is incorrect in showing two cauline leaves when it is a diagnostic feature that there are none.

Wilbur (1990) notes that this plate is a good example of the "crudeness" of Catesby's illustrations and adds It is by elimination that one determines the identity of many of Catesby's plates rather than by the faithfulness of the illustration.

Current Scientific Name: Cypripedium acaule Aiton

Current Common Name: 

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 72

Catesby Name: 

The Lady's Slipper of Pensylvania - Helleborine

Description: 

This Plant, from a fibrous root, rises with two or three single stems, to the height of ten or twelve inches, with long ribbed leaves growing alternately; the flower, as it is longer, resembles more a slipper than any other of this tribe that I have seen...

Location: 

This curious Helleborine was sent form Pensylvania by Mr. John Bertram, who by his industry and inclination to the searches into nature, has discovered and sent over a great many new productions both animal and vegetable. This plant flowered in Mr. Collinson's garden in April, 1738.

Other Information: 

Ewan (1974) identifies the plate as Cypripedium calceolus L. but Howard & Staples (1983), Wilbur (1990) and Reveal (2009) identify it as C. acaule.

For Wilbur this is based on The deeply fissured lip and the hint of red in the lip...

Current Scientific Name: Cypripedium parviflorum var. pubescens (Willd.) O.W.Knight

Current Common Name: Greater Yellow Lady's Slipper Orchid

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 73

Catesby Name: 

The Yellow Lady's Slipper - Calceolus Marianus glaber, Petalis angustis. (Pet. H. I. 5. Raii, Hist. III App. 243. Vid. Pluk. Tab. 418. Fig. 2.)

Description: 

This Plant rises, with three or more stems, to the height of twelve or sixteen inches; each stem having three or four rough, pointed, nervous leaves, growing alternately, and inclosing their stalk at their basis : on the top of every stalk grows the flower, which is yellow, hollow, of an oblong form, resembling an egg on the back-part, tho' on the fore-part open, having an apron or lappet hanging over the hollow: at the pedicles of which are fixed two small oval parts or knobs, of the size of Ants eggs.

Location: 

They grow on the sandy banks of Carolina, Virginia, and Pensilvania, from which last place they were introduced to the garden of Mr. Peter Collinson at Peckham, where they flowered in perfection.

Other Information: 

Ewan (1974) shows Cypripedium calceolus var. pubescens but Howard & Staples (1983), Wilbur (1990) and Reveal (2009) identify it as Cypripedium pubescens Willd. Both are synonyms of Cypripedium parviflorum var. pubescens (Willd.) O.W.Knight.

Current Scientific Name: Dalbergia ecastaphyllum (L.) Taub.

Current Common Name: Coinvine

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 24

Catesby Name: 

Arbor, Populi nigre foliis; fructu reni-formi, mono-spermo

Description: 

This large Shrub, or small Tree, was of the height of about twelve feet; with leaves resembling those of the black Poplar, set alternately. The fruit are somewhat of the form of a kidney...

Other Information: 

Ewan identified this plate as Ecastophylum brownei Pers. but Howard & Staples say that the drawing and description are not sufficient to determine that. They add: No supporting specimen has been located, and the problem is unresolved. (J. Arnold Arbor. 64: 529. 1983.) They, and subsequent reviewers have chosen D. ecastaphyllum. PlantList shows E. brownei as a synonym of D. ecastaphyllum.

Current Scientific Name: Decumaria barbara L.

Current Common Name: Woodvamp, Climbing Hydrangea

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 52

Catesby Name: 

Frutex Lauri longiore folio

Description: 

...grows in wet swamps and standing waters: it rises from the ground, with many stems, to the height of eight or ten feet, of a reddish colour. The leaves are placed alternately an inch from one another, and are in shape like those of a Bay, stiff and shining : at the pedicles of the leaves grow the flowers, which are tubulous, of a pale red colour, and set on stalks two or three inches long.

Location: 

"native of Virginia"

Other Information: 

Ewan (1974) identifies the plate as D. barbara L. but Howard & Staples (1983) and Wilbur (1990) do not identify it.

Ewan notes A puzzling plate but aside from certain discrepancies of habit, flower color, and corolla shape, there is a strong intimation that MC encountered this American species...

Wilbur says Like Howard and Staples (1983, p. 540 - 542) I am unable to accept Ewan's determination that the plant was Decumaria brarara L. The "certain discrepancies of habit, flower color, and corolla shape are just too numerous to accept such an identification." Like them I am unable to suggest an acceptable candidate for the name. Decumaria is a woody vine with opposite leaves which are much more ovate than the alternate, elliptical leaves of Catesby's plate and description. The inflorescence of Decumaria is a cymose corymb while that of Catesby's plate is basically racemous. Catesby states the fruit to be 2-parted; Decurmaria is 7 - 10-loculate.

Reveal lists the plate as Leucothoe axillaris (Lam.) D.Don.

Current Scientific Name: Dendropemon purpureus (L.) Krug & Urb.

Current Common Name: Smooth Leechbush

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 95

Catesby Name: 

Viscum foliis latioribas; baccis purpureis pediculis incidentilus

Description: 

The leaves of this Misleto grow by pairs; they are narrow at their beginning, and broad at their ends, set on slender pliant stalks, growing confusedly, after the manner of the common Misleto: between every pair of leaves shoot forth two slender stalks of about three inches long, with pairs of oblong purple-coloured berries, set opposite to each other. These Plants I found growing on many of the Mancaneel Tree, but did not observe them on any other Tree.

Other Information: 

Below

Current Scientific Name: Diospyros virginiana L.

Current Common Name: Common Persimmon, American Persimmon

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 76

Catesby Name: 

Guajacana

Description: 

These Trees are from fourteen to eighteen, and sometimes twenty feet in height, with a trunk seldom above ten inches thick, and leaves like those of a Pear. In April the blossoms appear, growing along the sides of the branches, on very short footftalks : they are monopetalous, succulent, and of a green colour, divided into four segments... as the fruit swells, the four petals, which composed the flower, spread, and become hard and dry. The fruit, which is of a transparent reddish yellow colour, incloseth four flat stones.

Location: 

... grow plentifully in Carolina, Virginia and most of the northern colonies in America, and are lately become naturalized to our climate, having here ripen'd its fruit in the open air.

Current Scientific Name: Dodecatheon meadia L.

Current Common Name: Shooting Star, Pride of Ohio

Catesby Reference: Appendix plate 1

Catesby Name: 

Meadia

Description: 

It flowered in Mr. Collinson's garden at Peckham, in September 1744, from seeds sent him by Mr. Bartram, who gathered them from beyond the Apalatchian mountains, which lie parallel with Virginia...

To this new genus of plants I have given the name of the learned Dr. Richard Mead, physician to His Majesty, and F.R.S. for gratitude for his zealous patronage of arts and sciences in general, and in particular for his generous assistance towards carrying the original design of this work into execution.

Location: 

Appalachian Mountains

Other Information: 

Ewan (1974), Howard & Staples (1983), and Wilbur (1990) all list D. meadia.

Reveal (2009) lists Primula meadia (L.) Mast & Reveal, based on his own "Transfer of Dodecatheon to Primula" published in Brittonia 59(1): 78-92 in 2007.

Current Scientific Name: Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench

Current Common Name: Eastern Purple Coneflower

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 59

Catesby Name: 

Chrysanthemum Americanum, Doronici folio, flore Persici coloris, umbone magno prominente ex atro purpureo, viredi, & aureo fulgente

Description: 

This Plant usually rises about six feet from the ground, with several large stalks, producing on their tops the first blown and largest flowers, succeeded by many smaller ones from the side branches: it continues flowering at least three months.

Location: 

"They grow on the banks of the Savanna River, about five hundred miles from the mouth of it."

Other Information: 

Ewan (1974), Howard & Staples (1983) and Wilbur (1990) listed the plate as E. purpurea but Reveal (2009) selected Echinacea laevigata (C.L.Boynton & Beadle) S.F. Blake.

Current Scientific Name: Echites umbellatus Jacq.

Current Common Name: Devil's Potato, Rubbervine

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 58

Catesby Name: 

Dogs-bane - Apocynum Scandens folio, cordato flore albo

Description: 

This Plant climbs upon and is supported by Shrubs and Trees near it. Its leaves grow opposite to each other, on foot-stalks less than an inch long. The flowers grow usually four or five in a cluster, are white, and consist of five petala, succeeded by long cylindrical pods, growing by pairs, containing many flat seeds not unlike the rest of the Apocynums.

Location: 

Bahamas

Other Information: 

Lower plant

Current Scientific Name: Encyclia plicata (Lindl.) Schltr.

Current Common Name: Pleated Orchid

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 88

Catesby Name: 

Viscum radice bulbosa; Floris labello carneo, ceteris sordide luteis

Description: 

This bulbous-rooted Plant grows only to the trunks, and on the limbs of Trees: its fibres insinuating into the crevices of the bark, where they take such firm rooting, that great strength is required to tear them from the Trees.

Location: 

Bahamas

Other Information: 

Left drawing

Ewan (1974) and Howard & Staples (1983) list Epidendrum plicatum Lindl. but Wilbur (1990) lists Encyclia plicata (Lindl.) Britton & Millsp. and Reveal (2009) shows Encyclia plicata (Lindl.) Schltr. PlantList considers Epidendrum plicatum Lindl. and Encyclia plicata (Lindl.) Britton & Millsp. to be synonyms of Encyclia plicata (Lindl.) Schltr. In Bahama Fl. (Britton & Millspaugh) Catesby's plate 88 is cited.

Wilbur comments that approximately 150 species of Epidendrum L. have been segregated as Encyclia Hook. They can be distinguished from each other by the shape of the column.

Current Scientific Name: Epidendrum nocturnum Jacq.

Current Common Name: Night Scented Orchid

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 68

Catesby Name: 

Viscum caryophylloides, foliis longis in apice incisis, floris labello albo trifido, petalis luteis, longis angustissimis

Description: 

The flowers consisted of five long narrow yellow petals placed on the ovarium, which was long and swelling towards the upper end, of a pale green colour: from the center of the five petals grew a cylindrical succulent white stem; from the top of which shoot forth three other white petals, the middlemost of which was longest.

Current Scientific Name: Erythrina herbacea L.

Current Common Name: Redcardinal, Eastern Coralbean

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 49

Catesby Name: 

Corallodendron humile, spica florum longissima coccinea, radice crassissimo

Description: 

In August, the fruit is ripe, consisting of pods, in shape and size resembling Kidney-beans, containing also such like seeds, but of a bright scarlet colour. In winter the whole Plant dies to the ground, leaving as a monument of fading glory its withered stalks...

Other Information: 

Lectotype = "Corallodendron humile, spica florum longissima coccinea, radice crassissimo" for Linnaeus in Sp. Pl. 2: 706 in 1753.

Current Scientific Name: Ficus citrifolia Mill.

Current Common Name: Shortleaf Fig, Wild Banyantree

Catesby Reference: Appendix plate 18

Catesby Name: 

Ficus citrii folio, fructu parvo purpureo (= Fig tree with Citrus leaf and small purple fruit)

Description: 

This tree grows to a large size, having a light-coloured smooth bark... The fruit is about the bigness of a Sloe, but shaped like a Fig, and covered with a thin purple skin, containing small seeds in pulp of the same purple colour, which has a sweet insipid taste, but is much coveted by Birds and other Animals.

Location: 

They grow on the rocks on the Bahama Islands.

Other Information: 

Linnaeus referenced Catesby in Sp. Pl. 2: 1060 as a variety under Ficus indica which is now considered to be a synonym of Ficus benghalensis L.. In Sp. Pl., ed. 4 Willd. still shows Ficus indica but no longer references Catesby.

In Bahama Fl. (Britton & Millspaugh) 105, 1920, Catesby is again referenced, this time under Ficus brevifolia Nutt., which is now considered a synonym of F. citrifolia. Nuttall did not cite Catesby in his Sylva, 1852.

Ewan (1974) listed F. brevifolia but Howard & Staples (1983), Wilbur (1990) and Reveal (2009) all list F. citrifolia.

Current Scientific Name: Fraxinus caroliniana Mill.

Current Common Name: Carolina Ash, Florida Ash, Water Ash, Pop Ash, Swamp Ash

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 80

Catesby Name: 

Fraxinus Carolinenfis, foliis anguflioribus utrinque acuminatis, pendulis

Description: 

The leaves are pointed at both ends. The feeds are winged, and hang in clusters. They grow in low moist places.

Other Information: 

Linnaeus cited Catseby's Natural History Volume I plate 80 under Fraxinus americana in Sp. Pl. 2: 1057 in 1753 and again in Sp. Pl., ed. 2 2: 1510 in 1763 but Willdenow cited Catesby Volume I plate 80 under F. caroliniana and not under F. americana in Sp. Pl., ed. 4 4: 2: 1103 to 4 in 1805.

Fernald (J. Arnold. Arbor. 27: in 1946) wrote: The Catesby plate... shows a characteristic fruiting branch with the small oblong leaflets acuminate at both ends, and the very distinct fruit of the southern Water- or Swamp-Ash, the characteristic small tree of southeastern swamps and very abundant in both Carolinas and eastern Virginia, "with," to quote Sargent's Silva, "elongated stout terete pale petioles"; whereas the White Ash, the Fraxinus americana of all recent authors, has, as Sargent correctly says, "stout grooved petioles," etc.

Ewan (1974) and Howard & Staples (1983) select F. americana L. whereas Wilbur (1990) and Reveal (2009) select F. caroliniana Mill.

Current Scientific Name: Galactia rudolphioides (Griseb.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex C.Wright

Current Common Name: Red Milk-pea

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 28

Catesby Name: 

An Phafeolus minor lalcefcens flore purpureo (Hist. Jam. Vol. I. - 162.)

Description: 

This Plant creeps up, and is supported by trees and Shrubs, near which it grows; the leaves are trifoliate; the flowers papilionaceous, and of a purple colour, succeeded by pods, like those of our common Pease, but thicker, more rounding...

Other Information: 

Lower plant.

Current Scientific Name: Gelsemium sempervirens (L.) J.St.Hil.

Current Common Name: Evening Trumpetflower, Carolina Jessamine (Jasmine)

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 53

Catesby Name: 

The yellow Jessamy - Gelseminum, sive Jasminum luteum odoratum Virginianum scandens, femper virens (Park. Theat. p. 1465.)

Description: 

This Plant grows usually in moifs places, its branches being supported by other Trees and Shrubs on which it climbs. The leaves grow opposite to each other from the joints of the stalks; from whence likewise shoot forth yellow tubulous flowers...

Location: 

These Plants are scarce in Virginia, but are every where in Carolina.

Current Scientific Name: Gentiana catesbaei Walter

Current Common Name: Elliott's Gentian, Bog Gentian, Catesby's Gentian

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 70

Catesby Name: 

Gentiana Virginiana, Saponariae folio, flore caeruleo longiore (Hist. Oxon. 3. 184. Ico. Tab. 5. Sect. 12.)

Description: 

This Plant grows in ditches and shady moist places, rising usually sixteen inches high, with upright strait stems, having long sharp pointed leaves, set opposite to each other, spreading horizontally. From the joints of the leaves come forth four or five monopetalous blue flowers...

Current Scientific Name: Gleditsia aquatica Marshall

Current Common Name: Water Honeylocust, Water Locust

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 43

Catesby Name: 

Acacia - Acacia Abruae foliis, triacanthos, capsula ovali, unicum semen claudente

Description: 

This Tree grows to a large size and spreading. The leaves are winged, composed of many small pointed lobes, like most others of its tribe.

Location: 

This Tree I never saw but at the plantation of Mr. Waring on Ashly river, growing in shallow water,

Current Scientific Name: Gordonia lasianthus (L.) J.Ellis

Current Common Name: Loblolly Bay

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 44

Catesby Name: 

The Loblolly Bay - Alcea Floridana quinque capsularis, Laurinis foliis, leviter crenatis, seminibus coniferarum instar alatis )Pluk. Amalth. p. 7. Tab. 352.)

Description: 

This is a tall and very streight Tree, with a regular pyramidal head. Its leaves are shaped like those of the common Bay, but serrated. It begins to blossom in May...

The wood is somewhat soft; yet I have seen some beautiful tables made of it.

Location: 

"It grows in Carolina; but not in any of the more northern colonies."

Current Scientific Name: Haematoxylum campechianum L.

Current Common Name: Bloodwoodtree, Logwood

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 66

Catesby Name: 

Logwood - Lignum campechianum; species quaedam Brasil (Joh. de Laet. Sloane, Hist. Jamaic. Vol. II. p. 183)

Description: 

The leaves are pinnated, consisting of four, and some five pair of lobes, set opposite to each other, and are in shape of an heart: from the tops of the branches shoot forth many spikes of small pentapetalous yellow flowers, every one of which, before it opens, is covered with a purple calix. The flowers are succeeded by small flat pods, about two inches long, which, when ripe, split open in the middle, and disclose five or six small flat seeds.

Location: 

Bahamas

Current Scientific Name: Halesia tetraptera J.Ellis

Current Common Name: Mountain Silverbell, Carolina Silverbell

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 64

Catesby Name: 

Frutex, Padi fo!iis non serratis, floribus monopetalis alhis, campani-formibus, fructu crasso tetragono

Description: 

The leaves are in shape like those of a Pear. In February and March come white flowers, in form of a bell, hanging usually two and three together, on inch long foot-stalks, from the sides of the branches.

Other Information: 

Linnaeus cited Catesby in Syst. Nat., ed. 10 2: 1044 in 1759 under Halesia carolina. He also cited material collected by Ellis. In Taxon 25: 123-140 in 1976, Reveal and Seldin conclude that Linnaeus used the Ellis material only to write his description of H. carolina. They believed that the Catesby drawing, although "not entirely accurate", represented the coastal version of H. carolina which Ellis had named H. tetraptera.

While Ewan in 1974 listed the plate as H. carolina, subsequent reviews have all come to the same conclusion that it is H. tetraptera.

Current Scientific Name: Hamamelis virginiana L.

Current Common Name: American Witchhazel, Common Witchhazel

Catesby Reference: Appendix plate 2

Catesby Name: 

Hamamelis

Description: 

The usual height of these Plants is ten or twelve feet: They resemble nut-trees at a little distance; the leaves of which this likewise resembles, or rather those of the alder-tree.

For this plant I am obliged to Mr. Clayton, who in the year 1743 sent it me in a case of earth from Virginia. It arrived in Christmas, and was then in full bloom.

Location: 

Carolina, Virginia

Current Scientific Name: Hippomane mancinella L.

Current Common Name: Manchineel, Manzanillo

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 95

Catesby Name: 

The Mancaneel Tree - Mancanilla Pyri facie (Plumier Plant. Americ.)

Juglandi affinis Arbor Julifera, &c. (Hist. Jam. Vol. II. p. 3.)

Description: 

These Trees usually grow to a large size, having a light coloured smooth bark, under which is contained a white milky juice, of a very poisonous nature : the leaves are smooth serrated, somewhat short, and pointed. The flowers grow at the ends of the branches, consisting of small tufts of little yellow pappous blossoms, placed at intervals, the length of about three inches.

The wood of this tree is coarse grained, very heavy and durable, beautifully shaded with dark, and lighter streaks, for which it is in great esteem for tables and cabinets, and other curious works of joinery; but the virulent and dangerous properties of these trees, cause a general fear, or at least caution, in felling them; this I was not sufficiently satisfyed of, 'till assisting in the cutting down a tree of this kind on Andros Island, I paid for my incredulity, some of the milky poisonous juice spurting in my eyes, I was two days totally deprived of sight, and my eyes, and face, much swelled, and felt a violent pricking pain, the first twenty-four hours, which from that time abated gradually with the swelling, and went off without any application, or remedy, none in that uninhabited land to be had...

Other Information: 

Above

Current Scientific Name: Hymenocallis caroliniana (L.) Herb.

Current Common Name: Carolina Spiderlily

Catesby Reference: Appendix plate 5

Catesby Name: 

Lilio-Narcissus Polianthus, flore albo

Description: 

This Plant has a bulbous root, from which rises a thick succulent stalk to the height of seven or eight inches; on the top of which grows a cluster of about eight or ten small green bulbs; from every one of which proceeds a monopetalous, tubulous, white flower.

Location: 

"These Plants I saw growing in a bog near Pallachucula, an Indian

town on the Savanna river, within the precint of Georgia."

Other Information: 

Per PlantList and the Linnaean Typification Project, the accepted name is Pancratium maritimum L.

Ewan (1974) listed Pancratium carolinianum L., the basionym of Hymenocallis caroliniana, Howard & Staples (1983) and Wilbur (1990) listed H. caroliniana and Reveal (2009) listed Pancratium maritimum (probably the accepted name).

Current Scientific Name: Hypoxis hirsuta (L.) Coville

Current Common Name: Common Goldstar, Eastern Yellow Star-grass, Starflower

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 33

Catesby Name: 

The Little Yellow Star-Flower - Ornithogalum luteum, parvum, foliis gramineis glabris

Description: 

This Plant grows usually not above five inches in height, producing many grassy leaves, from which rises a slender stalk, bearing a yellow star-like pentapetalous flower.

Location: 

...grows plentifully in most of the open pasture lands in Carolina and Virginia, where these Larks most frequent and feed on the seed of it.

Other Information: 

Ewan (1974 p. 92) and Reveal (Rhodora 111(947): 273-38. 2009.) name Catesby's plant as H. hirsuta but Howard & Staples (J. Arnold Arbor. 64: 511-546. 1983.) and Wilbur (Sida 14: 29-48. 1990.) believe that insufficient data is given to determine the species and err on the side of caution with Hypoxis sp.

Linneaus did not cite Catesby. No supporting specimen could be found, and the plant may well be Hypoxis juncea J. E. Sm. (Howard & Staples).

Current Scientific Name: Ilex cassine L.

Current Common Name: Dahoon Holly

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 31

Catesby Name: 

The Dahoon Holly - Agrifolium Caroliniense, foliis dentatis baccis rubris

Description: 

This Holly usually grows erect, sixteen feet high; the branches shooting straighter, and being of quicker growth than the common kind. The leaves are longer, of a brighter green, and more pliant; not prickly, but serrated only: the berries are red, growing in large clusters.

Location: 

This is a very uncommon plant in Carolina, I having never seen it but at Col. Bull's Plantation on Ashley River, where it grows in a bog.

Current Scientific Name: Ilex vomitoria Aiton

Current Common Name: Yaupon Holly

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 57

Catesby Name: 

Cassena vera Floridanorum, Arbuscula baccifera Alaterni facie. foliis alternatim sitis, tetrapyrene (Pluk. Mant.)

Description: 

But the great esteem and use the American Indians have for it, gives it a greater character. They say, that from the earliest times the virtues of this shrub has been known, and in use among them, prepared in the manner they now do it, which is after having dryed, or rather parched the leaves in a porrage-pot over a slow fire, they keep it for use: of this they prepare their beloved liquor, making a strong decoction of it, which they drink in large quantities, as well as for their health as with great gust and pleasure, without any sugar or other mixture, yet they drink and disgorge it with ease, repeating it very often, and swallowing many quarts.

Location: 

"In South Carolina it is called Cassena. In Virginia and North Carolina it is known by the name of Yapon..."

Current Scientific Name: Ipomoea batatas (L.) Poir.

Current Common Name: Sweet Potato

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 60

Catesby Name: 

The Virginian Potato - Convulvus Radice tuberoso esculento (Hist. Jam. Vol. I. p. 150)

Description: 

includes five different kinds of potato: Common, Bermudas, Brimstone, Carrot and Claret.

Location: 

Virginia, Carolina and the Bahamas

Current Scientific Name: Ipomoea carolina L.

Current Common Name: Cotton Morning Glory, Tievine

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 91

Catesby Name: 

Convulvus minor Pentaphyllos, flore purpureo minore

Description: 

...the leaves are digitated; the flowers are rather tubulous than bell shaped, the outside of them are light green, the inside purple, with their verges reflected back, and divided into six sections.

Location: 

Bahamas

Current Scientific Name: Ipomoea microdactyla Griseb.

Current Common Name: Calcareous Morning-glory

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 87

Catesby Name: 

Convolvulus foliis variis, inferioribus trisariim divisis, superioribus sagittatis; floribus ex rubro purpureis

Description: 

...climbs upon trees and shrubs in dark thickets and shady woods. The leaves are sharp-pointed, in form not unlike the head of an arrow or javelin; except some leaves towards the root were trifoliate, and remarkably different from the reft. The flower is tubulous, with an open pentagonal cup, and of a purple red colour.

Other Information: 

Ewan (1974) does not list the plant but Howard & Staples (1983), Wilbur (1990) and Reveal (2009) all list I. microdactyla Griseb.

Current Scientific Name: Ipomoea sagittata Poir.

Current Common Name: Saltmarsh Morning Glory

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 35

Catesby Name: 

The Purple Bindweed of Carolina - Convolvus Caroliniensis; angusto, sagittato, folio; flore amplissimo, purpureo; radice crassa

Description: 

The Flower of this Convolvulus is of a reddish purple, and of the size and shape of common white Bindweed.

Col. Moore, a gentleman of good reputation in Carolina, told me, that he has seen an Indian daub himself with the juice of this plant; immediately after which, he handled a rattle-snake with his naked hands without receiving any harm from it... And I have heard several others affirm, that they have seen the Indians use a plant to guard themselves against the venom of this sort of snake; but they were not observers nice enough to inform me what kind it was of.

Location: 

Carolina

Current Scientific Name: Jacaranda caerulea (L.) J.St.-Hil.

Current Common Name: Jacaranda, Green Ebony, Fern-tree

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 42

Catesby Name: 

The broad leafed Guaiacum, with blue Flowers - Arbor Guaiaci latiore folio; Bignoniae flore caeruleo; fructu duro, in duas partes disiliente; seminibus alatis, imbricatim positis

Description: 

[quote: This is a Tree of a middle size. The leaves are winged, with many small pointed alternate lobes. In May there proceeds from the ends of its branches several spreading foot-stalks bearing blue flowers, in form not unlike those of the fox-glove...}

Location: 

Bahamas

Current Scientific Name: Jacquinia keyensis Mez

Current Common Name: Joewood, Joe-bush, Ironwood

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 98

Catesby Name: 

Soap-wood - Frutex Buxi folis oblongis, baccis pallide viridibus apice donatis

Description: 

This Shrub or small Tree rises to the height of about six or eight feet, and usually with one strait stem covered with a whitish bark. The leaves in size, shape and substance resemble those of Box, and many of them grow concave and curling, with their edges inward. At the ends of the smaller twigs grow bunches of round pale green berries of the size of large Peas...

The bark and leaves of this tree being beat in a mortar produces a lather; and is made use of to wash cloaths and linnen, to which last it gives a yellowness. The hunters who frequent the desolate Islands of Bahama, (where this shrub grows on the sea-coast) are frequently necessitated to use this sort of soap to wash their shirts, for want of better.

Location: 

Bahamas

Current Scientific Name: Juglans nigra L.

Current Common Name: Black Walnut

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 67

Catesby Name: 

The Black Walnut - Nux juglans nigra Virginiensis

Description: 

The leaves are much narrower and sharper pointed than those of our Walnut, and not so smooth. The thickness of the inner shell requires a hammer to break it.

Location: 

Most parts of the northern continent of America abound with these trees, particularly Virginia and Maryland, towards the heads of the rivers...

Current Scientific Name: Kalmia angustifolia L.

Current Common Name: Sheep Laurel, Lambkill, Wicky

Catesby Reference: Appendix plate 17

Catesby Name: 

Chamaedaphne semper virens, foliis oblongis angustis, foliorum fasciculis oppositis e foliorum alis

Description: 

The leaves of this plant are shaped like those of the Sallow.... and are ever green... It seems to be of Shrub-growth, not rising above four or five feet high.

Location: 

... native of Pensylvania, and produced its blossoms at Peckham in September, 1743, and several succeeding years.

Other Information: 

Left plant

Current Scientific Name: Kalmia latifolia L.

Current Common Name: Mountain Laurel, Calico Bush

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 98

Catesby Name: 

Chamaedaphne foliis Tini, floribus bullatis umbellatis

Description: 

The flowers grow in bunches, on the tops of the branches, to footstalks of three inches long; they are white, stained with purplish red, consisting of one leaf in form of a cup

After several unsuccessful attempts to propagate it from seeds, I procured a plant of it at several times from America, but with little better success, for they gradually diminished, and produced no blossoms; 'till my curious friend Mr. Peter Collinson, excited by a view of its dryed specimens, and description of it, procured some plants of it from Pensilvania, which climate being nearer to that of England, than from whence mine came, some bunches of blossoms were produced in July 1740, and in 1741, in my garden at Fulham.

Location: 

This Plant is a native of Carolina, Virginia, and other parts of the northern continent of America, yet are not common, but are found only in particular places.

Current Scientific Name: Laguncularia racemosa (L.) C.F.Gaertn.

Current Common Name: White Mangrove

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 86

Catesby Name: 

An Thymelea foliis obtujis

Description: 

The flowers are tubulous, divided at top into four sections, they are white, except that within the cup there is a faint tincture of red, they grow in bunches at the ends of the branches.

Location: 

Bahama Islands

Other Information: 

Linnaeus did not cite Catesby. Britton and Millspaugh (1920, p. 646) were unable to identify this illustration. Although the plant described and illustrated by Catesby has alternate leaves, in all other characters it is clearly the white mangrove of the Bahamas.(Howard & Staples, J. Arnold Arbor. 64: 522. 1983.)

Ewan did not identify the plate in 1974 but since then it has been listed as L. racemosa.

Current Scientific Name: Leucothoe axillaris (Lam.) D.Don

Current Common Name: Coast Leucothoe

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 30

Catesby Name: 

Frutex aquaticus, floribus luteis, fructu rotundo quinque-capsulari

Description: 

These Plants grow usually about twelve feet high, arising with innumerable small stems, alternately bent, from which shoots forth smaller twigs, set with small pointed smooth leaves: the flowers... are hexapetalous, of a deep yellow colour...

Location: 

"shallow fresh-water ponds, in the woods of Virginia and Carolina"

Other Information: 

Ewan (1974) lists this plate as S. ebracteatus Kunth but subsequent reviewers disagree and list it as "unidentified".

Wilbur (1990) notes that the plant is described as being 12' tall whereas S. ebracteatus grows to only 2' tall. He adds that the description is contradictory and confused, and probably is a mixture of plants.

Reveal (2009) lists the "flowering branch" as "unidentified" but says the "fruiting branch" is L. axillaris.

Current Scientific Name: Leucothoe axillaris 'Margie Jenkins' (Lam.) D.Don

Current Common Name: Margie Jenkins Coast Leucothoe

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 30

Catesby Name: 

Frutex aquaticus, floribus luteis, fructu rotundo quinque-capsulari

Description: 

These Plants grow usually about twelve feet high, arising with innumerable small stems, alternately bent, from which shoots forth smaller twigs, set with small pointed smooth leaves: the flowers... are hexapetalous, of a deep yellow colour...

Location: 

"shallow fresh-water ponds, in the woods of Virginia and Carolina"

Other Information: 

Ewan (1974) lists this plate as S. ebracteatus Kunth but subsequent reviewers disagree and list it as "unidentified".

Wilbur (1990) notes that the plant is described as being 12' tall whereas S. ebracteatus grows to only 2' tall. He adds that the description is contradictory and confused, and probably is a mixture of plants.

Reveal (2009) lists the "flowering branch" as "unidentified" but says the "fruiting branch" is L. axillaris.

Current Scientific Name: Leucothoe racemosa (L.) A.Gray

Current Common Name: Fetterbush, Sweet-bells, Swamp Doghobble

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 43

Catesby Name: 

Frutex foliis serratis, floribus longioribus spicatis subviridibus, capsula pentagona

Description: 

These shrubs are usually slender in the main stem, spreading into many pliant branches, to the height of about ten feet, with thin leaves set alternately, having their edges finely serrated : the flowers are tubulous, small, of a greenish white...

Location: 

"moist places in Carolina and Virginia"

Other Information: 

Published in Sp. Pl. 1: 394 (under Andromeda paniculata) in 1753 - Linnaeus cites plate 43.

In Reveal: Significance of Pre-1753 Botanical Explorations... published in Phytologia vol. 53 #1 in 1983, A. paniculata L. is written as synonymous with Leucothoe racemosa (L.) A.Gray.

Current Scientific Name: Lilium canadense L.

Current Common Name: Canada Lily, Meadow Lily, Turk's Cap Lily, Yellow Lily

Catesby Reference: Appendix plate 11

Catesby Name: 

Lilium sive Martagon Canadense, floribus magis flavis, non reflexis

Description: 

This singular kind of Martagon rises to the height of almost four feet. On the summit of the stem are set altogether about twelve pedicles, to which are fixed its reclining flowers.

These plants were produced from scaly roots sent from Pensylvania, and have flowered several years in Mr. Collinson's garden at Peckham.

Current Scientific Name: Lilium catesbaei Walter

Current Common Name: Pine Lily, Leopard Lily, Catesby's Lily

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 58

Catesby Name: 

The Red Lilly - Lilium Carolinianum, flore croceo punctato, petalis longioribus & angustoribus

Description: 

This Lily grows from a single bulbous, scaly root, about the size of a walnut, rising with a single stalk to the height of about two feet; to which, from the bottom of the flower, are set opposite to each other narrow leaves. One flower only is produced on the top of the stalk, consisting of six petals ; every of which have a footstalk an inch long : these petals turn back in a graceful manner...

Location: 

Carolina

Current Scientific Name: Lilium michauxii Poir.

Current Common Name: Carolina Lily

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 56 - left flower and leaves

Catesby Name: 

Lilium, sive Martagon Canadense, flore luteo punctato (Acad. R. Par.)

Description: 

This Plate exhibits the Flowers of two kinds, because I conceive their difference being little, may be expressed in few words, without giving an unnecessary plate.

The largest flower is from another kind of Martagon. The flowers of this have their pedicules arising all together from the top of the stalk : the flowers are much larger, as are its scaly roots; and the usual height of the Plant is six feet.

Other Information: 

Ewan (1974) listed the plate as Lilium michauxii Poir..

Howard & Staples (1983) and Wilbur (1990) identify the plate as L. superbum L.

Wilbur says that the differences between the two plants are too subtle to be distinguished by either Catesby's artistic skills or his ability in phytography. However, only L. superbum grows in Pennsylvania so the part of the description which refers to the PA plant is L. superbum. For the rest he errs on the side of L. superbum because of the shape of the leaves, unless the plant depicted is from South Carolina, in which case it would be L. michauxii because L. superbum is not found in SC.

Reveal lists the left flower and whorl of leaves as L. michauxii, and L. superbum for the "overall aspect; buds and right flower"

Catesby Volume II plate 56 - left flower and leaves

Catesby Volume II plate 56 - left flower and leaves

Photo credit: Courtesy Biodiversity Heritage Library - Provided by Missouri Botanical Garden

Current Scientific Name: Lilium philadelphicum L.

Current Common Name: Wood Lily, Flame Lily, Glade Lily, Huckleberry Lily

Catesby Reference: Appendix plate 8

Catesby Name: 

Lilium angustifolium, flore rubro singulari

Description: 

This Lily rises from the ground with one, two, or three strait stalks; each of them bearing a single flower at the height of about sixteen inches. The leaves are narrow, and stained at their ends with purple.

Location: 

It is a native of Pensilvania, and blossomed in Mr. Peter Collinson's garden at Peckham, Anno 1743.

Current Scientific Name: Lilium superbum L.

Current Common Name: Turk's-cap Lily, Swamp Lily

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 56 - buds and right flower

Catesby Name: 

Lilium, sive Martagon Canadense, flore luteo punctato (Acad. R. Par.)

Description: 

This Plate exhibits the Flowers of two kinds, because I conceive their difference being little, may be expressed in few words, without giving an unnecessary plate. This Plant has its flowers grow alternately on long footstalks, of an orange and lemon colour, thick spotted with dark brown.

... introduced into England from Pensilvania by my friend Mr. Peter Collinson, in whose curious garden it flow red in perfection...

Other Information: 

Ewan (1974) listed the plate as Lilium michauxii Poir..

Howard & Staples (1983) and Wilbur (1990) identify the plate as L. superbum

Wilbur says that the differences between the two plants are too subtle to be distinguished by either Catesby's artistic skills or his ability in phytography. However, only L. superbum grows in Pennsylvania so the part of the description which refers to the PA plant is L. superbum. For the rest he errs on the side of L. superbum because of the shape of the leaves, unless the plant depicted is from South Carolina, in which case it would be L. michauxii because L. superbum is not found in SC.

Reveal lists the left flower and whorl of leaves as L. michauxii, and L. superbum for the "overall aspect; buds and right flower"

Catesby Volume II plate 56 - buds and right flower

Catesby Volume II plate 56 - buds and right flower

Photo credit: Courtesy Biodiversity Heritage Library - Provided by Missouri Botanical Garden

Current Scientific Name: Liquidambar styraciflua L.

Current Common Name: American Sweetgum

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 65

Catesby Name: 

The Sweet Gum-Tree - Liquidambari Arbor, seu Styraciflua, Aceris folio, fructu Tribuloide, Pericarpio orbiculari ex quam plurimis apicibus coagmentato, semen recondens (Plukenet. Almagest. Bot. pag. 224. Phytogr. Tab. 42. Fig. 6)

Description: 

In February, before the leaves are formed, the blossoms begin to break forth from the tops of the branches into spikes of yellowish red, pappous, globular flowers, which, when the apices are blown off by the wind, swell gradually, retaining their round form, to the full maturity of their feed-vessels, which are thick set with pointed hollow protuberances, and, splitting open, discharge their seeds; each cell containing a seed, winged at one end with many small grains distinct from the seed.

Current Scientific Name: Liriodendron tulipifera L.

Current Common Name: Tulip Poplar, Tuliptree

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 48

Catesby Name: 

The Tulip Tree - Arbor Tulipfera Virginiana, tripartito aceris folio, media lacinia velut abscissa (Pluk. Phytog. Tab. I 7. & Tab. 248.)

Description: 

Tree grows to a very large size; some of them being thirty feet in circumference. Its boughs are very unequal and irregular, not strait, but making several bends or elbows...

Location: 

found in most parts of the northern continent of America, from the Cape of Florida to New England. The timber is of great use.

Current Scientific Name: Lysiloma latisiliquum (L.) Benth.

Current Common Name: Wild Tamarind, False Tamarind

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 42

Catesby Name: 

Acacia, Buxi foliis rotundioribus, floribus albis, siliqua lata compressa

Description: 

These Trees grow very high, with large strait trunks; some being above three feet diameter, with very large spreading limbs: the exterior branches of the Tree are very small and pliant, thick set with pinnated leaves. The flowers are pappous, white, and globular, and are succeeded by flat thin pods, an inch broad, and almost five long, and are usually twisted, inclosing many flat brown seeds.

Location: 

Bahamas

Other Information: 

Ewan (1974) identifies plate 42 as L. glauca and Britton and Millspaugh (Bahama Fl. (Britton & Millspaugh) 162. 1920) cite Catesby 2: pl. 42.

Wilbur (1990) says that the following features in Catesby's description "exclude Leucaena":

"very high"

"large strait trunks... three feet diameter"

"large spreading limbs"

"pods, an inch broad, and almost five long"

the best wood of the Bahamas and shipped to England.

Howard & Staples (1983), Wilbur (1990) and Reveal (1990) all identify the plate as Lysiloma latisiliquum (L.) Benth.

Current Scientific Name: Magnolia acuminata (L.) L.

Current Common Name: Cucumbertree Magnolia

Catesby Reference: Appendix plate 15

Catesby Name: 

Magnolia flore albo, folio majore acuminato haud albicante

Description: 

The leaves are broad, some of them being above five inches wide, and eight in length, ending in a sharp point. The flower is five inches wide, consisting of twelve white petals, in the center of which is the ovarium environed by the apices...

Location: 

Specimens of this tree were first sent me in the year 1736, by my worthy friend John Clayton, Esq; of Virginia, and from the only tree known in the country. Since which Mr. Bartram of Pensylvania has discovered many of them in that province, from the seeds of which I am in hopes of raising some. Mr. Bartram saw them growing on the north branch of Susquehannah River; some of them were above an hundred feet in height. The wood has a fine grain, very tough, and of an orange colour. The Indians make bowls of the wood.

Other Information: 

Linnaeus cited Catesby first in Sp. Pl. 1: 536 in 1753 under M. virginiana var. acuminata and then published as M. acuminata in Syst. Nat., ed. 10 2: 1082 in 1759.

Current Scientific Name: Magnolia grandiflora L.

Current Common Name: Southern Magnolia, Loblolly Magnolia, Bullbay

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 61

Catesby Name: 

The Laurel-Tree of Carolina - Magnolia altissima, flore ingenti candido

Description: 

The leaves are shaped like those of the Lauro-cerasus, but much larger; of a shining bright green, except their under sides, which are of a russet red colour, with a hoary roughness, like buff. This particularity in the leaves doth not appear before the Tree is large; the young ones having their leaves green on both sides. In May the blossoms open, which are large, white, and very fragrant, somewhat resembling in form a single peony.

Location: 

What much adds to the value of this tree is, that it is so far naturalized and become a denizen to our country and climate, as to adorn first the garden of that worthy and curious baronet, Sir John Colliton, of Exmouth in Devonshire, where for these three years past, it has produced plenty of blossoms, since that and in the year 1737, one of them blossom'd at Parson's Green, in the garden of the Right Honourable Sir Charles Wager; one of which blossoms expanded, measured eleven inches over.

Current Scientific Name: Magnolia tripetala (L.) L.

Current Common Name: Umbrella Tree

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 80

Catesby Name: 

The Umbrella Tree - Magnolia, amplissimo flore albo, fructu coccineo

Description: 

These Trees are from sixteen to twenty feet in height, with a trunk seldom above five inches thick; the bark of which is white; the wood soft and spongy; the leaves are usually thirty inches in length, and about five broad at the widest part: they grow in horizontal circles, representing somewhat the appearance of an Umbrella.

Location: 

Carolina

Other Information: 

Ewan (1974) lists the plate as Magnolia macrophylla based in part on the size of the leaves ("thirty inches"). The other reviewers all identify it as M. tripetala. Wilbur says that there is some disagreement as to the length of the leaves of both species, but "the tapering leaf bases are clearly those of" M. tripetala.

Current Scientific Name: Magnolia virginiana L.

Current Common Name: Sweetbay, Laurel Magnolia, Swamp Magnolia

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 39

Catesby Name: 

The Sweet Flowering Bay - Magnolia Lauri folio, subtus albicante

Description: 

This is a small Tree, usually growing sixteen feet high; the wood is white and spongy, and covered with a white bark. The leaves are in shape like those of the common bay, but of a pale green, having their back-sides white. In May they begin to blossom, continuing most part of the Summer to perfume the woods with their fragrant flowers, which are white...

Location: 

They grow naturally in moist places, and often in shallow water; and what is extraordinary, they being removed on high dry ground, become more regular and handsomer trees, and are more prolific of flowers and fruit... native of both Virginia and Carolina, and is growing at Mr. Fairchild's in Hoxton, and at Mr. Collinson's at Peckham...

Other Information: 

Ewan (1974) notes ... the fruits are drawn inaccurately and too much resemble Magnolia grandiflora for size and number of pendent ripening seeds.

Current Scientific Name: Manilkara jaimiqui subsp. emarginata (L.) Cronquist

Current Common Name: Wild Dilly

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 87

Catesby Name: 

The Sappadillo Tree - Anona foliis Laurinis, in summitate incisis; fructu compresso scabro fusco, in medio acumine longo

Description: 

These Trees grow to a midling height and size, having a rough brown bark. Their leaves are of an oblong oval form, with a notch at their ends.

Location: 

Bahamas

Other Information: 

Ewan (1974) lists Sloanea emarginata L. but Howard & Staples (1983) and Wilbur (1990) identify the plate as Manilkara bahamense (Baker) H.J.Lam & B.Meeuse, while Reveal lists M. jaimqui subsp. emarginata (L.) Cronquist

PlantList shows Sloanea emarginata L. and M. bahamenis (Baker) H.J.Lam & B.Meeuse as synonyms of M. jaimqui subsp. emarginata (L.) Cronquist.

Current Scientific Name: Metopium toxiferum (L.) Krug & Urb.

Current Common Name: Florida Poisontree

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 40

Catesby Name: 

The Poison Wood - Toxicodendron foliis alatis, fructu purpureo, Pyri-formi, sparso

Description: 

This is generally but a small Tree; and has a light coloured smooth bark. Its leaves are winged, the middle rib seven or eight inches long... The fruits hang in bunches; are shaped like a Pear, of a purple colour...

Location: 

Bahamas

Current Scientific Name: Mitchella repens L.

Current Common Name: Partridge Berry, Twinberry, Twinflower, Running Box

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 20 page 21

Catesby Name: 

Syringa baccifera, Myrti fubrotundis foliis, floribus albis, gemellis, ex provincia Floridana (Pluk. Amalth: 198. Tab. 444)

Description: 

This plant grows in moist places, usually under trees, on which it sometimes creeps a little way up, but most commonly trails on the ground...

Other Information: 

Bottom of drawing

Current Scientific Name: Monotropa uniflora L.

Current Common Name: Indianpipe, Corpse Plant

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 36

Catesby Name: 

Broom-Rape - Orobanche Virginiana; flore pentapetalo, cernuo Pluk. Alma.

Description: 

This Plant rises to the height of eight or ten inches; and is of a flesh colour. The stalks are thinly beset with small, narrow, sharp-pointed leaves.

Current Scientific Name: Morella caroliniensis (Mill.) Small

Current Common Name: Evergreen Bayberry, Wax-myrtle, Swamp Bayberry

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 13

Catesby Name: 

The broad-leaved Candle-berry Myrtle - Myrtus Brabanticae similis, Caroliniensis, humilior; foliis latioribus & magis serratis

Description: 

This grows usually not above three foot high, in which, and its having a broader leaf than the tall Candle-berry Myrtle, it principally differs from it.

Location: 

"Caroliniensis"

Other Information: 

Myrica caroliniensis Mill. published in Gard. Dict., ed. 8 in 1768 - referenced Volume I Plate 13. Linnaeus also referenced it in Sp. Pl. 2: 1024 in 1753 as a variety of Myrica cerifera but in Sp. Pl., ed. 4 4(2): 746 in 1805, Willdenow included Myrica caroliniensis and cited Catesby. Myrica caroliniensis is the basionym of Morella caroliniensis. Synonym Myrica heterophylla Raf. - some debate as to which is the accepted name.

Wilbur (in Sida 14: 29-48 in 1990) shows plate 13 as Myrica heterophylla which I think is a synonym of Morella caroliniensis.

Howard & Staples (in J. Arnold Arbor. 64: 511-546 in 1983) select Myrica pensylvanica Loisel (= Myrica pensylvanica Duhamel) - this is based on Catesby - but was published later than Myrica caroliniensis and there being no other objection, that suggests that the accepted name now should be Morella caroliniensis. However, if the two should be separate species, Morella pensylvanica and Morella caroliniensis then only one can be properly based on Catesby's drawing. Wilbur argues that this would be M. heterophylla (= M. caroliniensis) because Catesby's specimen was most likely collected in a southern location where the plant Morella pensylvanica does not grow (south only to Virgina/NC). A new drawing of the plant Myrica pensylvanica was included with the description when first published in Traité Arbr. Arbust. (Duhamel), nouv. éd. 2: 190 in 1804 and this could be the type for the plant as a separate species.

Reveal selects Morella caroliniensis (Rhodora 111(947): 273-388. 2009).

Current Scientific Name: Morella cerifera (L.) Small

Current Common Name: Bayberry, Candleberry, Wax Myrtle, Southern Waxmyrtle

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 69

Catesby Name: 

The Narrow-leaved Candle-berry Myrtle - Myrtus, Brabanticae similis, Carolinensis, baccata, fructu racemoso sessili monopyreno (Pluk. Alma.)

Description: 

"In November and December, at which time the berries are mature, a man with his family will remove from his home to some island or sandbanks near the sea, where these trees most abound, taking with him kettles to boil the berries in. He builds himself a hut with Palmeto-leaves, for the shelter of himself and family while they stay, which is commonly three or four weeks."

"The man cuts down the trees, while the children strip off the berries into a porrige-pot; and having put water to em, they boil them 'till the oil floats, which is skim'd off into another vessel. This is repeated till there remains no more oil. This, when cold, hardens to the consistence of wax, and is of a dirty green colour. Then they boil it again, and clarify it in brass kettles; which gives it a transparent greenness. These candles burn a long time, and yield a grateful smell. They usually add a fourth part of tallow; which makes them burn clearer."

Other Information: 

Ewan (1974), Howard & Staples (1983) and Wilbur (1990) all list Myrica cerifera L.

Reveal (2009) lists Morella cerifera (L.) Small.

Current Scientific Name: Nectandra coriacea (Sw.) Griseb.

Current Common Name: Florida Nectandra, Lancewood

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 28

Catesby Name: 

Cornus, foliis Salicis Laureae acuminatis; floribus albis; fructu Sassafras

Description: 

This Tree is usually but of small stature, growing to the height of about sixteen feet: the leaves grow alternately on footstalks of about an inch long; they resemble somewhat those of the common Bay, but are more taper and pointing at the end: they are light green, smooth and shining.

Other Information: 

Ewan (1974), Howard & Staples (1983) and Wilbur (1990) all show this as Ocotea coriacea (Sw.) Britton (a synonym of N. coriacea (Sw.) Griseb.)

Reveal (2009) lists it as N. coriacea (Sw.) Griseb.

Current Scientific Name: Nyssa aquatica L.

Current Common Name: Water Tupelo, Swamp Tupelo

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 60

Catesby Name: 

The Water Tupelo - Arbor in aqua nascens, foliss latis acuminatis & dentatis, fructu Eleagni majore

Description: 

The roots... are used in Carolina for the same purposes as cork, stop gourds and bottles. These trees always grow in wet places, and usually in the shallow parts of rivers and in swamps.

Other Information: 

Under Nyssa aquatica Linnaeus cited Catesby Volume I plates 41 and 60 in Sp. Pl. 2: 1058 in 1753. Eyde (Taxon 13: 131) in 1964 implied that plate 60 is the best match for N. aquatica and plate 41 for N. sylvatica - ...Volume I (1731) of this work contains readily recognizable illustrations of Nyssa sylvatica (plate 41) and Nyssa uniflora (plate 60), each of which is carefully described... (from Rhodora 61: 212 in 1959.)

N. uniflora Wangenh. is a synonym of N. aquatica L.

Ewan (1974) listed plate 60 as Nyssa ogeche Bartram ex Marshall but Howard & Staples, Wilbur and Reveal all show N. aquatica L.

Current Scientific Name: Nyssa sylvatica Marshall

Current Common Name: Black Tupelo, Black Gum, Sour Gum, Pepperidge

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 41

Catesby Name: 

The Tupelo Tree - Arbor in aqua nascens; foliis latls, acuminatis & non dentatis, fructu Eleagni minore

Description: 

The grain of the wood is curled and very tough, and therefore very proper for naves of cart-wheels and other country-uses.

Location: 

...grow usually in moist places in Virginia, Maryland and Carolina.

Other Information: 

Under Nyssa aquatica Linnaeus cited Catesby Volume I plates 41 and 60 in Sp. Pl. 2: 1058 in 1753. Eyde (Taxon 13: 131) in 1964 implied that plate 60 is the best match for N. aquatica and plate 41 for N. sylvatica - ...Volume I (1731) of this work contains readily recognizable illustrations of Nyssa sylvatica (plate 41) and Nyssa uniflora (plate 60), each of which is carefully described... (from Rhodora 61: 212 in 1959.)

Ewan (1974) listed plate 41 as N. aquatica L. but Howard & Staples (1983), Wilbur (1990) and Reveal (2009) all favored N. sylvatica - following Eyde.

Current Scientific Name: Orontium aquaticum L.

Current Common Name: Goldenclub, Neverwet

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 82

Catesby Name: 

Arum aquaticum minus; S. Arisarum fluitans pene nudo Virginianum (D. Banister Pluk. Mantiss. 28.)

Description: 

This Plant grows by the sides of Rivers, and in watery places the root is tuberous, from which springs many broad oval leaves, eight or ten inches wide, on thick succulent round stalks, to the height of about four feet.

Current Scientific Name: Oryza sativa L.

Current Common Name: Rice

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 14

Catesby Name: 

Rice

Current Scientific Name: Osmanthus americanus (L.) Benth. & Hook.f. ex A.Gray

Current Common Name: Devilwood

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 61

Catesby Name: 

The Purple-berried Bay - Ligsutrum Lauri folio, fructu violaceo

Description: 

This Tree grows usually sixteen feet high: and the trunk is from six to eight inches in diameter.

Current Scientific Name: Oxydendrum arboreum (L.) DC.

Current Common Name: Sourwood, Sorrel Tree, Lily of the Valley Tree

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 71

Catesby Name: 

The Sorrel-tree - Frutex foliis oblongis acuminatis, floribus spicatis universo dispositis

Description: 

The trunk of this Tree is usually five or fix inches thick, and rises to the height of about twenty feet, with lender branches thick set with leaves, shaped like those of the Pear-Tree. From the ends of the branches proceed little white monopetalous fowers...

Current Scientific Name: Panax quinquefolius L.

Current Common Name: American Ginseng

Catesby Reference: Appendix plate 16

Catesby Name: 

The Ginseng, or Ninsin of the Chinese - Aureliana canadensis R. P. Lafiteau

Description: 

Catesby gives a description of Chinese Ginseng from a Jesuit missionary, Father Jartuox. He notes: That Father took the opportunity to make a draught of the Plant, and give an accurate description thereof, which, being published in the Memoirs of the Academy of Sciences at Paris, gave light to the discovery of the same plant in Canada and Pensylvania, from which last place it was sent to Mr. Collinson, in whose curious garden at Peckham it has, the preceding two or three years, and also this year 1746, produced its blossoms and berries.

Catesby determines that it is the exact same species as the one from China, but the two are actually considered different species.

Location: 

"Canada and Pensylvania"

Current Scientific Name: Passiflora cupraea L.

Current Common Name: Passion-flower

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 93

Catesby Name: 

Grandilla, foliis Sarsaparillae trinerviis; flore purpureo; fructu Olivaeformi caeruleo

Description: 

The leaves of this kind of Passion-flower are of an oblong oval form, having three parallel ribs, extending from the stalk to the end, with smaller veins, running obliquely to their edges; the flower is made up of ten narrow purple petals; five of which are long, the other five about half as long...

Location: 

Bahamas

Current Scientific Name: Passiflora suberosa L.

Current Common Name: Corkystem Passionflower, Indigo-berry

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 51

Catesby Name: 

Flos Passionis minimus, trilobatus flore sub caeruleo

Description: 

The leaves of this Passion-flower resemble that of the J Hepatica, consisting of three lobes, or rather a leaf divided by three segments. The flower is of a peach colour, formed like others of the kind, except that the cup is longer than ordinary. The fruit is small, round, and of a deep blue colour.

Other Information: 

Lower plant.

Ewan (1974) identified the plate as Passiflora pallida L. but this is considered a synonym of P. suberosa L.

Howard & Staples (1983), Wilbur (1990) and Reveal (2009) list the plate as P. suberosa L.

Wilbur adds Dr. John McDougal (MO), an authority on the meso-American Passifloraceae, has looked into the problem and to date has not found any author earlier than Master (1872) who has unequivocally placed one name in the synonymy of the other. Master treated P. pallida L. as a variety of P. suberosa L. which would establish P. suberosa as the name to be maintained if the taxa were combined. MacDougal found that Robert Combs (1897, p. 424) appears to be the first author who unequivocally reduced one species to the synonymy of the other and he also chose to retain Passiflora suberosa L.

(COMBS, R. 1897. Plants collected in the district of Cienfuegos, Province of Santa Clara, Cuba in 1895 - 96. Trans. Acad. Sci. St. Louis 7:393 - 491. pl.30 -39.

MASTERS, M.T. 1872. Passifloraceae in C.E.P. von Martius' Flora brasiliensis. 13 :529 - 628.)

Current Scientific Name: Peltandra virginica (L.) Schott & Endl.

Current Common Name: Green Arrow Arum

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 83

Catesby Name: 

Arum Sagitariae folio angusto, acumine & auriculis acutissimis

Description: 

This Plants grows in ditches, and shallow water to the height of three or four feet, with many arrow-headed leaves, on long succulent stalks springing from a tuberous root, from which also shoot forth large round stalks, at the end of each of which grows, in an hanging posture, a large roundish green seed vessel or capsula, containing many globular green berries of different bigness, some of the size of Musket bullets, and others but half as big this feed vessel (which is about the size of an Hen's egg) when mature...

Other Information: 

Ewan (1974) identified this plate as Peltandra sagittifolia but Howard & Staples (1983) wrote that this was incorrect because P. sagittifolia has a white spathe and red berries. Wilbur (1990) adds that the species must be P. virginica because it has a green spathe and green berries as described by Catesby. Reveal (2009) concurs.

Current Scientific Name: Pentalinon luteum (L.) B.F.Hansen & Wunderlin

Current Common Name: Hammock Viper's-tail, Wild Allamanda, Yellow Mandevilla

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 53

Catesby Name: 

Apocynum scandens, Salicis folio, flore amplo pleno

Description: 

This Plant trails upon, and is supported by trees and shrubs, to the height of ten, and sometimes twenty feet: the leaves stand by pairs on footstalks an inch long, shaped not unlike those of a sallow, of a shining green, and stiff; their veins hardly discernable. These leaves are apt to curl, or turn back, as the figure represents : the flowers grow at the ends of the smaller branches, fix or eight in a cluster, on footstalks above an inch long, are tubulous, having five petals at the mouth of the tube, with broad square ends.

Location: 

Bahamas

Other Information: 

Ewan (1974), Howard & Staples (1983) and Wilbur (1990) list the plate as Urechites lutea (L.) Britton which is a synonym of P. luteum.

Reveal (2009) listed P. luteum.

Current Scientific Name: Persea borbonia (L.) Spreng.

Current Common Name: Redbay

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 63

Catesby Name: 

The Red Bay - Laurus Caroliniensis, foliis acuminatis, baccis caeruleis, pediculis longis rubris insidentibus

Description: 

The leaves of the Tree are in shape like those of the common Bay, and of an aromatic scent. The berries when ripe, are blue, growing two, and sometimes three together, on foot-stalks of two or three inches long, of a red colour, as is the calix or cup of the fruit, and indented about the edges.

Location: 

...not common in Virginia, except in some places near the Sea. In Carolina they are every where seen, particularly in low swampy lands.

Other Information: 

Ewan (1974) quotes Fernald in Rhodora 47: 150. 1945 Catesby's plate is a definite, though much distorted representation, with petioles often much longer than in nature and obviously not differentiated by the artist from the 'footstalks of two or three inches long'.

Current Scientific Name: Philadelphus inodorus L.

Current Common Name: Scentless Mockorange

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 84

Catesby Name: 

Philadelphus flore albo majore inodoro

Description: 

...from the larger upright stalks grow smaller ones, horizontally and opposite to one another, on which are placed the leaves by pairs, shaped like those of a Pear. At the ends of these smaller stalks were also placed the flowers, growing usually tow or three together on footstalks of about an inch long.

Location: 

Seen only on the banks of the Savannah River, near its cataracts.

Other Information: 

Upper plant

Current Scientific Name: Phoradendron rubrum (L.) Griseb.

Current Common Name: Mahogany Mistletoe

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 81

Catesby Name: 

Viscum foliis longioribus baccis rubris

Description: 

This Misleto had long, smooth, shining, green leaves, growing by pairs the berries were round, red, and somewhat smaller than those of the common Misleto. They grow in clusters, to stalks of above an inch long, which shoot forth by pairs, from between the joinings of the leaves to the stalk.

Location: 

Bahamas

Other Information: 

Bottom left

Current Scientific Name: Phyllanthus epiphyllanthus L.

Current Common Name: Swordbush

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 26

Catesby Name: 

Phylanthos Americana Planta flores ad foliorum crenas proferans (Hort. Amstel. Tom. I. - 121)

Description: 

This Shrub rises to the height of five or six feet, with many upright stems growing from the root; the leaves are usually four, and some five inches long; having both edges serrated or widely notched, at somewhat less than an inch distant from one another: from every of these notches grow a very small monopetalous red flower, succeeded by small round red berries.

Location: 

Bahamas

Other Information: 

Ewan (1974) listed the synonym Xylophylla epiphyllanthus (L.) Britton in Small. Subsequent reviewers agree on P. epiphyllanthus L.

Current Scientific Name: Phymosia abutiloides (L.) Desv. ex. Ham.

Current Common Name: Bahaman Thymosa

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 77

Catesby Name: 

Ketmia frutescens glauca, Aceris majoris folio longiore, serrato, flore carneo

Description: 

This Plant rises with several stems usually five feet high, producing broad serrated downy leaves, like the broad-leaved Maple, divided by six sections. The flowers are in clusters on the top of the stalk; of a pale red...

Location: 

Bahamas

Current Scientific Name: Picrodendron baccatum (L.) Krug & Urb.

Current Common Name: Blackwood, Jamaica Walnut

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 32

Catesby Name: 

Tapia trifolia fructu majore oblongo

Description: 

This usually grows but to a small tree of about twenty feet high, and the body about eight or ten inches diameter: the leaves are trifoliate, hanging opposite to each other on long stalks; the fruit likewise hang on very long stalks, and are of the size and shape of Spanish Olives, and of a yellow colour...

Other Information: 

Ewan (1974) and Wilbur (1990) list this plate as Picrodendron macrocarpum (A.Rich) Britton which is a synonym of Picrodendron baccatum (L.) Krug & Urb. - Wilbur details some of the issues as to whether it is a synonym or not.

Howard & Staples (1983) and Reveal (2009) list it as P. baccatum.

Current Scientific Name: Pithecellobium bahamense Northr.

Current Common Name: Cat's Claw

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 97

Catesby Name: 

Acacia foliis amplioribus; siliquis cincinnatis (Plum. Cat.)

Description: 

...these Trees grow to about fifteen inches in thickness, and thirty or more feet in height, with a rough brown bark. The leaves are like those of the Phillirea, growing by pairs. The flowers are globular, composed of numerous scarlet filaments, produced from small green capsulas: many of the flowers grow together on long footstalks, at the ends of slender branches, making an elegant appearance. The flowers are succeeded by pods, of a reddish brown colour, containing many flattish round shining black feeds, which, when ripe, are discharged from out of the pods, but hang thereto by a scarlet mucilaginous, spongy substance, which incloses a third part of every seed. The pods grow three or four together, in a wreathed or spiral manner...

Location: 

Bahamas

Other Information: 

Catesby is referenced by Linnaeus as Mimosa circinalis, basionym of Pithecellobium circinale (L.) Benth., but Britton & Millspaugh argue in Bahama Fl. (Britton & Millspaugh) that it should be Pithecellobium mucronatum Britton.

Ewan (1974) lists this plate as P. mucronatum Britton but Howard & Staples (1983), Wilbur (1990) and Reveal (2009) list P. bahamense.

Wilbur adds: The difference between the three commentaries concerning Pithecellobium are of little consequence. Correll and Correll's observation (1982, p. 678) has convinced them that the alleged differences between P. mucronatum Britt. ex Coker and P. bahamense Northrop are of no taxonomic significance.

Current Scientific Name: Platanus occidentalis L.

Current Common Name: American Sycamore, Buttonwood, Planetree

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 56

Catesby Name: 

The Western Plane-Tree - Platanus Occidentalis

Description: 

This Tree usually grows very large and tall. Its leaves are broad, of a light green, and somewhat downy on the back-side.

Location: 

In Virginia they are plentifully found, in all the lower parts of the country; but in Carolina there are but few, except on the hilly parts, particularly on the banks of the Savannah River.

Current Scientific Name: Plumeria obtusa L.

Current Common Name: White Plumeria, Singapore Frangipani, Singapore Graveyard Flower

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 93

Catesby Name: 

Plumeria flore niveo, foliis brevioribus obtusis (Plum. Cat.)

Description: 

This Shrub grows usually to the height of ten feet. Its leaves are long, in form like those of the Oleander, but somewhat blunter at their ends: they grow in bunches, at the ends of the branches, from which also rises a succulent shining green stalk, five inches long; on the top of which grow the flowers, in a cluster, which are mostly white...

Other Information: 

Above

Current Scientific Name: Plumeria rubra L.

Current Common Name: Templetree, Red Frangipani

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 92

Catesby Name: 

Plumeria flore roseo odoratissimo (Tournef. Inst,)

Description: 

These Trees rise usually to the height of about fourteen or sixteen feet, with a trunk five or six inches thick, from which shoot irregularly its branches, which are large and succulent; on the top of which are placed the leaves and flowers. The leaves grow many of them together; they are about seven or eight inches in length, and two or three broad, of a shining green. The flowers are tubulous, and are divided into five segments; they are of a rose colour, and very fragrant.

...in great esteem for its odour and ornament.

Location: 

"introduced from the continent of America to Barbados, and other of our Sugar Islands"

Current Scientific Name: Podophyllum peltatum L.

Current Common Name: Mayapple, American Mandrake, Wild Mandrake

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 24

Catesby Name: 

The May Apple - Anapodophyllon Canadense Morini (Tournef.)

Description: 

It flowers in March; the fruit is ripe in May; which has occasioned it in Virginia to be called May-Apple.

Location: 

Virginia

Current Scientific Name: Polystachya concreta (Jacq.) Garay & H.R.Sweet

Current Common Name: Greater Yellowspike Orchid

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 55

Catesby Name: 

Viscum Caryophylloides ramosum, floribus minimis albis

Description: 

The flower is hollow, the back of the cup growing into a pointed petal ; and from the bottom of the cup, on each side, spreads two pointed petals: the whole flower of a light green ; within the hollow of it are yellow stamina. These flowers are succeeded by small semilunar seed vessels, both ends being blunt, and one bigger than the other, containing very small dusty seeds.

Location: 

Bahamas

Other Information: 

Ewan (1974) listed the plate as Polystachya minuta (Aubl.) Britton but this is a later homonym.

Howard & Staples (1983), Wilbur (1990) and Reveal (2009) identify the plate as P. concreta (Jacq.) Garay & H.R.Sweet (of which P. minuta (Aubl.) Britton is a synonym.)

Current Scientific Name: Populus heterophylla L.

Current Common Name: Swamp Cottonwood

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 34

Catesby Name: 

The Black Poplar of Carolina - Populus nigra, folio maximo, gemmis Balsamum odoratissimum fundentibus

Description: 

They are large and very tall. In April, at which time only I saw them, they had dropt their seeds; which, by the remains, I could only perceive to hang in clusters, with a cotton like consistence covering them. Upon the large swelling buds of this Tree sticks a very odoriferous balsam.

Location: 

..grows only near rivers, above the inhabited parts of Carolina.

Other Information: 

Linnaeaus cites Catseby's Natural History Volume I Plate 34 for Populus balsamifera and Ewan (1974) selects this name, but from Howard & Staples (J. Arnold Arbor. 64: 511-546. 1983.):

For Populus balsamifera L. ... Linnaeus cited Catesby and Hortus Cliffort. Rouleau (Rhodora 48: 103-110. 1946) concluded that Catesby illustrated Populus heterophylla but described a mixture of P. heterophylla and P. deltoides. Rouleau cited a specimen in the British Museum which may have been H.S. 212. f. 11 (upper) or 232. f. 52 (left, 1 leaf).

Reveal (Rhodora 111(947): 273-38. 2009.) and Wilbur (Sida 14: 29-48. 1990.) agree with Howard & Staples.

Current Scientific Name: Prosthechea boothiana (Lindl.) W.E.Higgins

Current Common Name: Dollar Orchid

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 74

Catesby Name: 

Viscum Caryophylloides, floribus parvis luteis punctatis

Description: 

Plant rises, from a bulbous root, with three or four leaves, like those of the Narcissus, having one strait single stem, to the height of twelve or more inches: on each side of which, are eight, ten, or more flowers, set alternately on pretty long footstalks: five yellow petals, spotted with dark brown, set on a green, cylindrical, ribbed capsula, with stamina, compose the flower; in the seed-vessel are contained a great many very small seeds, divided by thin membranes.

Location: 

Bahamas

Other Information: 

Ewan (1974) lists Epicladium boothianum (Lindl.) Small.

Howard & Staples (1983) chose Epidendrum boothiana Lindl.

Wilbur (1990) selected Encyclia boothiana (Lindl.) Dressler.

Reveal (2009) selects Prosthechea boothiana (Lindl.) W.E.Higgins.

Wilbur makes light of the discrepancies saying that they result from the commentators accepting different standards in the rapidly changing generic dismemberment in such large orchid genera as the broadly conceived Epidendrum.

PlantList shows them as synonyms of Prosthechea boothiana (Lindl.) W.E. Higgins.

Current Scientific Name: Prosthechea citrina (Lex.) W.E.Higgins

Current Common Name: Daffodil Orchid, Tulip Orchid

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 88

Catesby Name: 

Viscum Caryophylloides, Lilii albi foliis, Floris labello brevi purpureo, ceteris Petalis ex luteo virescentibus

Description: 

...grow upon trees, and sometimes upon rocks, being also bulbous; one bulb producing usually two lily-like leaves, between which shoots up a green succulent stalk, with flowers at the top, set alternately on inch-long footstalks, as appears in the figure.

Location: 

Bahamas

Other Information: 

Right

Ewan (1974) and Howard & Staples (1983) list Epidendrum cochleatum L. but Wilbur (1990) lists Encyclia cochleata (L.) Lemée and Reveal (2009) shows Prosthechea cochleata (L.) W.E.Higgins. The two former names are synonyms of Prosthechea cochleata (L.) W.E. Higgins.

Current Scientific Name: Prosthechea cochleata (L.) W.E.Higgins

Current Common Name: Clamshell Orchid, Cockle-shell Orchid

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 88

Catesby Name: 

Viscum Caryophylloides, Lilii albi foliis, Floris labello brevi purpureo, ceteris Petalis ex luteo virescentibus

Description: 

...grow upon trees, and sometimes upon rocks, being also bulbous; one bulb producing usually two lily-like leaves, between which shoots up a green succulent stalk, with flowers at the top, set alternately on inch-long footstalks, as appears in the figure.

Location: 

Bahamas

Other Information: 

Right

Ewan (1974) and Howard & Staples (1983) list Epidendrum cochleatum L. but Wilbur (1990) lists Encyclia cochleata (L.) Lemée and Reveal (2009) shows Prosthechea cochleata (L.) W.E.Higgins. The two former names are synonyms of Prosthechea cochleata (L.) W.E. Higgins.

Current Scientific Name: Prunus virginiana L.

Current Common Name: Chokecherry

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 28

Catesby Name: 

The Cluster'd Black Cherry - Cerasi similis arbuscula Mariana, Padi folio, flore albo parvo racemoso (Pluk, Mantiff. 43. Tab. 339)

Description: 

In March it produces pendulous bunches of white flowers, which are succeeded by small black Cherries of a greenish cast, hanging in clusters of five inches long, in the manner of Currants. The fruit of some of these Trees is sweet and pleasant: others are bitter.

Location: 

...in the thick wood of Carolina where these trees most abound. They seldom grow bigger than a man's leg...

Other Information: 

Plate 28 is cited by Linnaeus in Sp. Pl. 1: 473 in 1753. In edition 2 Linnaeus removed the reference to Catesby. Willdenow separates P. virginiana and P. serotina but does not cite Catesby for either in Sp. Pl., ed. 4 2(2): 985-6 in 1799.

Reveal (Rhodora 111(947): 273-38. 2009.) and Howard & Staples (J. Arnold Arbor. 64: 511-546. 1983.) selected P. virginiana L.

Wilbur (Sida 14: 29-48. 1990.) argues for Prunus serotina Ehrh. He notes that when Linnaeus cited Catesby, no distinction was made between P. virginiana and P. serotina but since a distinction is now made, it is more likely that Catesby's plant would have been P. serotina because that plant grows in South Carolina in abundance whereas P. virginiana is not found in South Carolina and is rare even in North Carolina.

Current Scientific Name: Ptelea trifoliata L.

Current Common Name: Common Hoptree

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 83

Catesby Name: 

Frutex Virginianus trifolius, Ulmi samaris (Banisteri Pluk. Alma, 159.)

Description: 

These Trees usually grow to the height of twelve or fifteen feet, with a trunk as big as one's leg, having a pale greenish smooth bark. Its leaves are trifoliate, set on long footstalks. The flowers grow in spiked bunches...

Location: 

upper Parts of the Savannah River in Carolina.

Current Scientific Name: Quercus alba L.

Current Common Name: White Oak

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 21 f. 2

Catesby Name: 

The White Oak - Quercus alba Virginiana (Park)

Description: 

This nearest resembles our common English oak in the shape of its leaves, acorns, and manner of growing; the bark iswhite, the grain of the wood fine...

Location: 

"Virginia and Carolina"

Other Information: 

Left of the drawing.

Current Scientific Name: Quercus incana W.Bartram

Current Common Name: Bluejack Oak

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 22

Catesby Name: 

The Highland Willow Oak - Quercus humilior, salicis folio breviore

Description: 

This is usually a small tree, having a dark coloured bark, with leaves of a pale green, and shapded like those of a Willow.

Location: 

Most of these oaks are growing at Mr. Fairchild's.

Other Information: 

Cited in Sp. Pl. 2: 994 in 1753 as a variety of Q. phellos and in Fl. Amer. Sept. (Pursh) 2: 625 in 1813 as Quercus phellos var. humilis. Q. phellos var. humilis is now considered a synonym of Q. incana.

Similarly cited in Hist. Chênes Amér. 8 in 1801 under Quercus cinera Michx. and in Silva 8: 171 in 1895 under Quercus brevifolia Sarg. both of which are considered synonyms of Q. incana.

Ewan (1974 p. 92) identified the plate as Quercus laevis Walt. - no doubt carelessly (Wilbur)

Current Scientific Name: Quercus laevis Walter

Current Common Name: Turkey Oak

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 23

Catesby Name: 

The Red Oak - Quercus Esculi divisura, foliis amplioribus aculeatis (Pluk. Phytog. Tab. LIV)

Description: 

The leaves of this Oak retain no certain form; but sport into various shapes more than other Oaks do.

Other Information: 

Type for Quercus catesbaei Michx. - a synonym of Q. laevis.

Also cited under Quercus rubra in Sp. Pl. 2: 996 in 1753 and Ewan identified it as Q. rubra L. (1974 p.92).

Current Scientific Name: Quercus marilandica (L.) Münchh.

Current Common Name: Blackjack Oak

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 19

Catesby Name: 

The Black Oak - Quercus (forte) Marilandica, folio trifido ad sassafras accedente (Raii Hist)

Description: 

Usually grows on the poorest land, and is small: the colour of the bark black, the grain coarse; and the wood of little use but to burn : Some of these Oaks produce leaves ten inches wide.

Current Scientific Name: Quercus michauxii Nutt.

Current Common Name: Swamp Chestnut Oak, Basket Oak

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 18

Catesby Name: 

The Chestnut Oak - Quercus castaneae foliis, procera arbor virginiana (Pluk. Alma)

Description: 

This Oak grows only in low and very good land, and is the tallest and largest of the Oaks in these parts of the world: the bark white and scaly...

Other Information: 

Reference is made to Catesby's Natural History Volume I Plate 18 in Sp. Pl. 2: 995 in 1753 under Quercus prinus. Reference is again made in Sp. Pl., ed. 2 2: 1413 in 1763 and in Sp. Pl., ed. 4 4(1): 439 in 1805 both still as Q. prinus. In Sp. Pl., ed. 4 4(1): 440 in 1805 Willdenow publishes Quercus montana for the first time, distinguishing it therefore from Q. prinus. Since then Q. prinus has been applied to both Q. montana and Q. michauxii and it has therefore been recommended that Q. prinus be rejected (2007).

Catesby's rendering seems to be Quercus michauxii.

treatment was clearly that of the swamp chestnut oak, Quercus michauxii Nutt., as his statements as to habitat and morphology indicate. (Wilbur: Sida 14:35-36).

Ewan (1974) and Howard & Staples (in J. Arnold Arbor. 64: 511-546 in 1983) selected Q. prinus prior to the rejection of that name.

Current Scientific Name: Quercus nigra L.

Current Common Name: Water Oak

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 20

Catesby Name: 

The Water-Oak - Quercus folio non serrato, in summitate quasi triangulo

Description: 

These grow no where but in low waterish lands: the timber not durable, therefore of little use, except for fencing in fields. In mild winters they retain most of their leaves. The acorns are small and bitter, and are rejected by the hogs while others are to be found.

Other Information: 

Top of drawing

Current Scientific Name: Quercus phellos L.

Current Common Name: Willow Oak

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 16

Catesby Name: 

The Willow Oak - Quercus Anpotius; Ilex Marilandica, folio longo, angusto, salices

Description: 

In mild winters they retain their leaves in Carolina, but in Virginia they drop.

Current Scientific Name: Quercus rubra L.

Current Common Name: Northern Red Oak

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 21 f. 1

Catesby Name: 

The White Oak, with pointed Notches - Quercus Caroliniensis, virentibus venis muricata

Description: 

The leaves of this oak are notched, and have sharp points. The bark and wood are white, but it has not so close a grain as the precedent. Dr. Pluknet has figured a leaf shaped like this by the name of Quercus Virginiana, rubris venis muricata. This has no red veins. See Pluk. Phytograph. Tab. LIV, fig. 5.

Other Information: 

Catebsy's plate 21 f. 1 (leaf on the right) could also represent Quercus falcata which is Reveal's selection in Rhodora 111(947): 273-388 in 2009.

Wilbur determines that there is insufficient evidence to make a choice and lists it as Quercus sp. (in Sida 14: 29-48).

Howard & Staples (in J. Arnold Arbor. 64: 511-546 in 1983) selected Q. rubra L.

Current Scientific Name: Quercus virginiana Mill.

Current Common Name: Live Oak

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 17

Catesby Name: 

The Live Oak - Quercus sempervirens foliis oblongis non sinuatis (D. Banister)

Description: 

The usual height of the Live Oak is about 40 foot; the grain of the wood coarse, harder and tougher than any other Oak.

The acorns are the sweetest of all others; of which the Indians usually lay up store, to thicken their venison soup, and prepare them other ways. They likewise draw an oil, very pleasant and wholesome, little inferior to that of Almonds.

Location: 

"...edges of the salt marshes..."

Other Information: 

Reference to Catesby was made in Sp. Pl. 2: 994 in 1753 as a variety of Quercus phellos, and again in Sp. Pl., ed. 2 2: 1412 in 1763. In Sp. Pl., ed. 4 4(1): 425 in 1805 Willdenow did not include it under Quercus phellos but listed it as Quercus virens, (note that he got the plate # wrong giving 16 instead of 17), citing also Quercus virginiana Mill. Q. virens is considered a synonym of Q. virginiana.

Current Scientific Name: Reynosia septentrionalis Urb.

Current Common Name: Red Ironwood, Darling Plum

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 75

Catesby Name: 

The Bullet-Bush - Prunus Buxi folio cordato, fructu nigro rotundo

Description: 

The largest part of the stem of this Shrub is seldom bigger than the small of a man's leg. The height is usually five feet. The branches shoot forth near the ground and spread. The leaves are stiff like those of box, and about the same bigness, with notches at the ends. The berries hang to the smaller branches by footstalks not half an inch long, and are globular, somewhat larger than a Black Cherry, of a blueish black; and contain each a single stone.

Other Information: 

Not identified by Ewan (1974).

Howard & Staples (1983), Wilbur (1990) and Reveal (2009) all show R. septentrionalis Urb. Howard & Staples add that although Sargent said Catesby's plate was the first account of R. latifolia Griseb. in 1891, Urban had later, in 1899, separated the Bahamian and Cuban plants.

Current Scientific Name: Rhizophora mangle L.

Current Common Name: Red Mangrove

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 63

Catesby Name: 

The Mangrove Tree - Candela Americana, foiis Laurinis, flore tetrapetalo luteo, fruatu anguistiore

Description: 

These Trees vary in height, being in some places twenty, in others above thirty feet high, in proportion to the depth or richness of the muddy soil in which they grow. The bark is smooth, of a light brown ; in the smaller branches inclining to red ; the leaves are somewhat like those of the Bay, with their middle veins yellow ; having inchlong footstalks...

Current Scientific Name: Rhododendron maximum L.

Current Common Name: Great Laurel, Rosebay Rhododendron

Catesby Reference: Appendix plate 17

Catesby Name: 

Chamaerhododendros lauri-folio semper virens, floribus bullatis corymbosis

Description: 

This tree riseth to the height of about sixteen feet, producing evergreen leaves, in shape like the Lauro-Cerasus, of a shining dark green. The flowers grow in clusters; the buds or rudiment of which appear in autumn...

Location: 

This elegant tree adorns the western and remote parts of Pensylvania, always growing in the most steril soil, or on the rocky declivities of hills and river banks, in shady moist places.

Several of these young trees have been sent from Pensylvania by Mr. Bartram, who first discovered them there, but they have not yet produced any blossoms here; and though they have been planted some years, they make but slow progress in their growth, and seem to be one of those American plants that do not affect our soil and climate.

Other Information: 

Right plant

Current Scientific Name: Rhododendron viscosum (L.) Torr.

Current Common Name: Swamp Azalea, Swamp Honeysuckle

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 57

Catesby Name: 

The Upright Honeysuckle - Cistus Virginiana, flore & odore Periclymeni (D. Banister)

Description: 

At the ends of the stalks are produced bunches of flowers, resembling our common honeysuckle...

Location: 

It is a native of Virginia and Carolina, but will endure our Climate in the open air, having for some years past produced its beautiful and fragrant blossoms at Mr. Bacon's at Hoxton, and at Mr. Collinson's at Peckham.

Other Information: 

Howard & Staples list R. viscosum var. aemulans Rehder.

Current Scientific Name: Rhus glabra L.

Current Common Name: Smooth Sumac

Catesby Reference: Appendix plate 4

Catesby Name: 

Rhus glabrum Panicula speciosa coccineo

Description: 

But that which distinguishes it, and gives it the preference to all the other species of it, is the resplendency of its scarlet panicles; the colour of which beings to appear in July with a tincture of yellow; but as the fruit ripens, the scarlet heightens, as appears by plants in their full lustre in Mr. Christopher Gray's garden at Fulham.... N.B. A warm summer is requisite to perfect the colour in our climate.

Current Scientific Name: Robinia hispida L.

Current Common Name: Bristly Locust, Rose Locust, Rose Acacia

Catesby Reference: Appendix plate 20

Catesby Name: 

Pseudo Acacia hispida floribus roseis

Description: 

... I visited them again at the proper time to get some seeds, but the ravaging Indians had burn'd the woods many miles around, and totally destroyed them, to my great disappointment; so that all I was able to procure of this specious tree was some specimens of it which remain in the Hortus ficcus of Sir H. Sloane, and that of Professor Dillenius at Oxford. But since I am informed that a plant of this tree has been introduced from America by Sir John Colliton, Bart. to his gardens at Exmouth in Devonshire.

Location: 

I never saw any of these trees but at one place near the Apalatchian mountains...

Other Information: 

Ewan (1974), Howard & Staples (1983) and Wilbur (1990) all list R. hispida.

However Reveal (2009) lists the plate as Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Kunth ex Walp. (common name "Quickstick").

Ewan notes that W.W. Ashe subdivided Robinia hispida into several presumed "species" which have been reviewed by Robert. L. Wilbur (Leguminous Plants of North Carolina 1963, p. 212).

Current Scientific Name: Salmea petrobioides Griseb.

Current Common Name: Shanks (Aster family)

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 72

Description: 

This Plant grows usually to the height of four or five feet, with many strait ligneous stems; to which are set, opposite to each other, at the distance of five or six inches, smaller single stems. The leaves grow opposite to one another on footstalks half an inch long, being narrow next the stalk, and broad at the end, where they are little pointed...

Location: 

Arbor maritima, foliis conjugatis pyriformibus apice in summitate instructis, floribus racemosis luteis

Other Information: 

Ewan (1974), Howard & Staples (1983) and Wilbur (1990) all list S. petrobioides Griseb. Reveal (2009) lists S. petrochioides Griseb.

Current Scientific Name: Sarracenia flava L.

Current Common Name: Yellow Pitcherplant

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 69 right

Catesby Name: 

Sarracena - Sarracena foliis longioribus & angustioribus; Bucanephyllon elatius Virginianum, &c. (Pluk. Alm. p. 72. T. 152. f. 3.)

Description: 

This cowl expands itself till the leaf is at full bigness, having its inside of a greenish yellow, veined with purple...

Location: 

These plants grow in bogs and watery places in Carolina, Virginia, Maryland and Pensylvania.

Other Information: 

Right plant.

Ewan (1974), Wilbur (1990) and Reveal (2009) identified the plate as S. flava but Howard & Staples (1983) show Sarracenia x catesbaei (Ell.) Bell. Wilbur argues that although Elliott cites Catesby, the only thing that accords with S. catesbaei is the purple venation of the cowl and he feels that S. flava is the right choice.

This plant which has been probably united with the S. Flava, and which can be connected with no other species, appears to me sufficiently distinct ; it differs by its rigidly erect leaves, by its throat which is straight and not expanding, and by its appendix of which the sides are not reflected. It differs also from the S. Flava by its darkly colored purple veins and hairy appendix. My specimens agree exactly with the figure in Catesby, to which I have referred and were collected by Dr. Macbride along the margins of the rivulets amidst the high sand hills of Chesterfield district in S. Carolina. from Sketch Bot. S. Carolina (Elliott) 2: 11 in 1824. Elliott names the plant Sarracenia x catesbaei.

Current Scientific Name: Sarracenia minor Walter

Current Common Name: Nodding Pitcherplant

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 69 left

Catesby Name: 

Sarracena

Description: 

The leaves of this Plant are tubulous and ribbed, arising from a knotty fibrous toot; to the height of about three feet: they are small at the root, widening gradually to the mouth of tie tube; which, in young leaves, are closed, but open by degrees, as the leaf increaseth ; and, when near its full growth, arches over the mouth of the tube, in form of a friar's cowl...

Location: 

These plants grow in bogs and watery places in Carolina, Virginia, Maryland and Pensylvania.

Other Information: 

Left plant.

This is not identified by Ewan (1974) or Howard & Staples (1983) but Wilbur (1990) and Reveal (2009) identify it as S. minor. For Wilbur, this is based on its distinctive leaf.

Current Scientific Name: Sarracenia purpurea L.

Current Common Name: Purple Pitcherplant, Sweet Pitcherplant

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 70

Catesby Name: 

Sarracena, foliis brevioribus latioribus. Sarracena Canadensis, foliis cavis & auritis (Hist. R. H. 675)

Description: 

The leaves of this... spring from a fibrous root, to the height of six or eight inches; they are likewise hollow, swelling, and more protuberant than the former, and differently shaped, as in the figure: they are of a yellow green colour, striped and veined with purple. The flowers of this Plant rife considerably higher than the leaves, and are of a purple colour...

Current Scientific Name: Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees

Current Common Name: Common Sassafras, Ague Tree

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 55

Catesby Name: 

Sassafras - Cornus mas odorata, folio trifido margine plano, Sassafras dicta (Pluk. Almag.)

Description: 

This is generally a small Tree; the trunk usually not a foot thick. The leaves are divided into three lobes by very deep incisures. In March comes forth bunches of small yellow flowers with five petals each; which are succeeded by berries, in size and shape not unlike those of the Bay-Tree, hanging on red foot-stalks, with a calix like that of an acorn; which calix is also red. The berries are at first green, and, when ripe, blue.

Location: 

...grow in most parts of the Northern Continent of America, and generally on very good land.

Other Information: 

Howard & Staples listed Sassafras albidum var. molle (Raf.) Fernald but this is considered a synonym of S. albi.

Current Scientific Name: Scaevola plumieri (L.) Vahl

Current Common Name: Gullfeed, Inkberry

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 79

Catesby Name: 

Lobelia frutescens, Poriulacae folio (Plum. Nov. Gen. p. 21)

Description: 

This flower appears in a fingular manner, as if it had been tubulous, but flit down to the basis, and laid flat open. The flowers are succeeded by globular berries, of the size of black Bullace, containing a stone, covered with a smooth black skin.

Location: 

Bahamas

Current Scientific Name: Sideroxylon foetidissimum Jacq.

Current Common Name: False Mastic

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 75

Catesby Name: 

The Mastic Tree - Cornus, foliis Laurinis, fructu majore luteo

Description: 

This Tree grows usually to the height of about fifty feet, with a trunk two or three feet thick, having a greenish white smooth bark. The leaves hang promiscuously on long footstalks, and are in form somewhat like those of a Pear-tree ; from the fides of the branches grow small pentapetalous yellow flowers, which are succeeded by yellow oval fruit, in size and shape of small Plumbs, inclosing an oval brown stone.

Location: 

Bahamas

Other Information: 

Ewan (1974) and Reveal (2009) select Sideroxylon foetidissimum Jacq. but Howard & Staples (1983) and Wilbur (1990) list Mastichodendron foetidissimum (Jacq.) H.J.Lam.

Once again Wilbur says it results from having a "broadly conceived genera" and that Mastichodendron is to be accepted as the "American segregate". Obviously Reveal disagrees.

PlantList shows the accepted name as S. foetidissimum Jacq and Mastichodendron foetidissimum (Jacq.) H.J.Lam as a synonym.

Current Scientific Name: Silene virginica L.

Current Common Name: Fire Pink

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 54

Catesby Name: 

Lychnis viscosa, Virginiana, flore amplo coccineo : seu Muscipula Regia (D. Banister Phytogr. Tab. 203. Fig. i.)

Description: 

The height of this Plant is usually about a foot, rising with several stems, which divide into smaller stalks ; on which grow the flowers on footstalks half an inch long : the flower is red, tubulous, consisting of five petals, with a deep notch at the end of each, besides an angular point on each side : the leaves grow opposite to one another without footstalks.

Location: 

... sandy woods near Charles-Town in Carolina.

Current Scientific Name: Smilax laurifolia L.

Current Common Name: Laurel Greenbrier, Bamboo Vine

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 15

Catesby Name: 

The Bay-leaved Smilax - Smilax laevis, Lauri folio, baccis nigris

Description: 

The flowers are small and whitish; the fruit grows in round clusters, and is a black berry, containing one single hard seed, which is ripe in October...

Location: 

...usually found in moist places...

Current Scientific Name: Smilax maritima Feay ex Alph.Wood

Current Common Name: Lanceleaf Greenbrier, Southern Smilax

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 84

Catesby Name: 

Smilax non Spinosa baccis rubris (non-spinous, red berries)

Description: 

These Plants, with their glittering scarlet fruit, and by retaining their green leaves, make an elegant appearance all the winter; at which season the berries serve as food to Thrushes and other birds...

Location: 

"bogs and watery lands in Carolina"

Other Information: 

Lower drawing

Ewan (1974) and Howard & Staples (1983) list Smilax lanceolata L. but Wilbur (1990) and Reveal (2009) show Smilax smallii Morong. Fernald in Rhodora 46: 39-42 in 1944 makes the case that S. lanceolata L., from Virginia, is really Smilax laurifolia L. in a narrow-leaved form. Also he points out that Gray examined the Herbarium specimens for Smilax ovata Pursh and said that they are the same as the southern plant known as S. lanceolata, but S. ovata Pursh (1814) is a later homonym (S. ovata Duhamel (1803) was a different plant) and therefore he says that S. smallii Morong is the first available name. Small claimed the southern S. lanceolata and Smilax cinnamomiifolia Small were the same as S. smallii Morong.

However, Smilax maritima Feay ex A.Wood was published in 1861 as a replacement for the illegitimate S. ovata Pursh and would therefore predate S. smallii Morong.

Current Scientific Name: Smilax pumila Walter

Current Common Name: Sarsparilla Vine, Dwarf Greenbrier

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 47

Catesby Name: 

Smilax non spinosa, humilis, folio Aristolochiae, baccis rubris

Description: 

This Plant sometimes trails on the ground. The leaves resemble those of the Birth-wort, and are set alternately on its tender stalks; from which hang clusters of small red berries of an oval form, but pointed...

Other Information: 

Ewan (1974 p. 93) listed this plant as Smilax herbacea L.

Howard & Staples, Wilbur and Reveal list it as S. pumila Walter. Wilbur says that the fruit of S. pumila are red and oval, which is in accordance with Catesby's description, whereas those of S. herbacea are black and globose. Likewise, the description of the "hard pointed seed" from Catesby matches S. pumila.

Current Scientific Name: Smilax tamnoides L.

Current Common Name: Bristly Greenbrier, Chinaroot

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 52

Catesby Name: 

Smilax Bryoniae nigrae foliis caule spinosa, baccis nigris

Description: 

This Plant shoots forth with many pliant thorny stems; which, when at full bigness, are as big as a walking cane, and jointed...

Location: 

Of these roots the inhabitants of Carolina make a diet-drink, attributing great virtues to it in cleaning the blood, &c. They likewise in the spring boil the tender shoots and eat them prepared like asparagus. Tis called there China Root.

Other Information: 

From The Linnaean Plant Name Typification Project: There has been much disagreement as to the identity of the type. Fernald identified it as S. tamnoides, but Clausen (in Rhodora 53: 109-111. 1951) concluded that it was a composite of several taxa, and that the name should therefore be discarded as ambiguous. Wilbur (in Sida 14: 38. 1990) supported this view, treating the woody species as S. hispida Muhl. ex. Torr. Subsequently, Wilbur (in Rhodora 105: 250-259. 2003) has provided an extensive review. He concludes that the bristly greenbriar is correctly known as S. hispida Raf. However, no formal proposal for the rejection of S. tamnoides yet seems to have been made.

So Ewan (1974, p93) selected Smilax bona-nox L. but noted that Edwards and Forster identified this plate as Smilax tamnoides L.

Howard & Staples and Reveal selected S. tamnoides L.

Wilbur implies S. hispida but lists "Smilax an unidentifiable mixture of 2 - 3 species"

Current Scientific Name: Spigelia marilandica (L.) L.

Current Common Name: Woodland Pinkroot, Indian Pink

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 78

Catesby Name: 

The Indian Pink - Gentiana forte? quae Periclymeni Virginiani flore coccineo. Planta Marilandica spicata erecta, foliis conjugatis. (D. Sherard. R. Hist. III. Dendr. 3. N. 23)

Description: 

This Plant rises usually with four or five stalks, of about twelve or fourteen inches in eight; every one of which has three or four pair of sharp-pointed leaves, set opposite to each other. On the top of the stalks, on one side, are placed about ten or twelve monopetalous, tubelous, red flowers: the flower divides at top into five sections, the inside of which is yellow ; from the middle of the flower arose a long yellow stilus, with stamina.

The plant was in blossom, the first of August 1738, in the garden of Mr. Christ. Gray at Fulham, and endures the winter without any protection. A decoction made of this plant is good against worms.

Current Scientific Name: Stewartia malacodendron L.

Current Common Name: Silky Camellia, Virginia Stewartia

Catesby Reference: Appendix plate 13

Catesby Name: 

Steuartia

Description: 

This Shrub rises from the ground, with several stiff inflexible stems, to an ordinary height. The leaves are serrated, and grow alternately, resembling those of the Syringa. The flower resembles that of a single Rose, consisting of five white concave petals...

For this elegant plant I am obliged to my good friend Mr. Clayton, who sent it me from Virginia, and three months after its arrival it blossom'd in my garden at Fulham, in May 1742.

Current Scientific Name: Swietenia mahogani (L.) Jacq.

Current Common Name: West Indian Mahogany, Cuban Mahogany, Spanish Mahogany

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 81

Catesby Name: 

The Mahogany Tree - Arbor foliis pinnatis, nullo impari Alam claudente, nervo ad latus unum excurrente, fructu anguloso magno, semine alato instar Pinus

Description: 

These Trees grow to a great height, and are usually four feet diameter; the bark is of a brown colour: the leaves are pinnated; growing by pairs on slender stalks; the ribs of the leaves...

Other Information: 

Above and right

Current Scientific Name: Symplocarpus foetidus (L.) Salisb. ex W.P.C.Barton

Current Common Name: Skunk Cabbage

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 71

Catesby Name: 

The Scunk Weed - Arum Americanum, Betae folio

Description: 

This Plant, before the leaves appeared, arrived at its full size, as is here exhibited, consisting of three succulent, monopetalous hollow flowers, with short stems... before the leaves open, they appear pale green, but in a short time become spotted with green and purple blended together. At the decay of the flowers, the leaves appear of the size here exhibited, and usually four or five in number.

The introduction of this most curious plant with innumerable others, is owing to the indefatigable attachment of Mr. Collinson, who in the year 1735, received it from Pensylvania, and in the spring following it displayed itself in this manner at Peckham.

Current Scientific Name: Symplocos tinctoria (L.) L'Hér.

Current Common Name: Common Sweetleaf, Horsesugar

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 54

Catesby Name: 

Arbor lauri folio, floribus ex foliorum, alis pentapetalis, pluribus staminibus donatis

Description: 

This Shrub has a slender stem, and grows usually about eight or ten feet high. Its leaves are in shape like those of a pear, growing alternately on foot-stalks of an inch long; from between which proceeds small whitish flowers, consisting of five petals; in the middle of which shoot forth many tall stamina, headed with yellow apices...

The roots of this plant are made use of in decoctions, and are esteemed a good stomachic and cleanser of the blood.

Location: 

moist and shady woods, in the lower parts of Carolina.

Current Scientific Name: Tabebuia bahamensis (Northr.) Britton

Current Common Name: White Dwarf Tabebuia

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 37

Catesby Name: 

Plum Cat. - Bignonia arbor pentaphylla, flore roseo, majore, filiquis planis

Description: 

This Shrub usually rises to the height of about ten feet. From the larger branches shoot forth long tender stalks, at the end of every of which are five leaves fixed on footstalks an inch long. Its flower is monopetalous, of a rose colour, and somewhat bell-shaped...

Current Scientific Name: Talipariti tiliaceum (L.) Fryxell

Current Common Name: Fryxell Tree, Beach Hibiscus, Sea Hibiscus, Mahoe

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 90

Catesby Name: 

The Maho-Tree - Ketmia amplissimo Tiliae folio, subtus argenteo, Flore magno luteo

Description: 

The leaves are set on pretty long footstalks, and are in shape of an heart, their under sides being of a pale light green. Its flowers are composed of five yellow petals...

Other Information: 

Ewan (1974 p. 99) identified the plate as Thespesia populnea (L.) Solander.

Howard & Staples (1983) and Wilbur (1990) list it as Hibiscus tiliaceus L.

Wilbur notes that the description given by Catesby has "the pronounced calycine teeth of Hibiscus tiliaceus which contrasts greatly with the truncate calyx of Thespesia..."

Reveal (2009) identifies it as Talipariti tiliaceum which is listed as the accepted name for Hibiscus tiliaceus L.

Britton & Millspaugh in Bahama Fl. (Britton & Millspaugh) 273 in 1920 cite Catesby under Pariti tiliaceum (L.) A.St.-Hil. which is a synonym of Talipariti tiliaceum.

Current Scientific Name: Taxodium distichum (L.) Rich.

Current Common Name: Bald Cypress

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 11

Catesby Name: 

The Cypress of America

Description: 

Four or five foot round this tree (in a singular manner) rise many stumps, some a little above ground, and others from one to four foot high, of various shape and size, their tops round, covered with a smooth red bark. These stumps shoot from the roots of the tree, yet they produce neither leaf nor branch...

Current Scientific Name: Thalassia testudinum Banks & Sol. ex K.D.Koenig

Current Common Name: Turtlegrass

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 38

Catesby Name: 

Alga marina, graminea angustissma folio (Hist. Jam. 61. --- Vol. I.)

Description: 

...several grassy narrow blades shoot from a stringy fibrose socket, which arises from the root...

Location: 

"grow in shallow water"

Current Scientific Name: Theobroma cacao L.

Current Common Name: Cacao, Cocoa

Catesby Reference: Appendix plate 6

Catesby Name: 

The Cacao Tree - Cacao Arbor

Description: 

The trunks of there trees are about eight inches thick, and twelve feet in height, with a shining smooth bark. The leaves grow alternately; are broad and pointed...

Location: 

native of America, and grows in no other part of the world. The places of its growth are in the Bay of Campeachy, on Costa Rica between Portabel and Nicaragua, the coast of Caraccos, Guaiaquil, and Colima.

Current Scientific Name: Tillandsia balbisiana Schult.f.

Current Common Name: Northern Needleleaf

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 89

Catesby Name: 

The Wild Pine - Viscum Caryophylloides angustifolium, Floribus longis tubulosis caeruleis, ex spicis squamosis, caeruleis erumpentibus

Description: 

This Plant rises from a round tuberous root with many fibres, spreading on the surface of the limbs and branches of Trees; insinuating a little way into the bark : from the root grow many concave leaves... red scaly spikes, five or six inches long; from the sides of which shoot forth obliquely, several cylindrical, tubulous, monopetalous, blue flowers, with several stamina, and a yellow stilus...

Location: 

Bahamas

Other Information: 

Ewan (1974) lists Tillandsia fasciculata Sw. but Howard & Staples (1983), Wilbur (1990) and Reveal identify the plate as T. balbisiana Schult.f.. Wilbur said he did so because he was following the Bromeliad expert L.B. Smith (Bromeliaceae in the North American Flora 19: 136. 1938. And Tillandsioideae (Bromeliaceae). Fl. Neotropica 14(2): 985. 1977.)

Current Scientific Name: Trillium catesbaei Elliot

Current Common Name: Bashful Wakerobin, Catesby's Trillium

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 45

Catesby Name: 

Solanum triphyllon; flore hexapetalo, carneo

Description: 

This has a tuberous root; from which shoots forth two or three strait stalks, of about eight inches high; on which are set triangularly three ribbed leaves: from between which proceeds its flower, of a pale red, composed of six spreading leaves, three large and three smaller, with stamina of unequal lengths. The flower is succeeded by its seed-vessel, in form and size of a small Hazelnut...

Location: 

This Plant I found at the sources of great rivers; not having seen any in the inhabited Parts of Carolina.

Other Information: 

It is remarkable with what facility we sometimes drop the species of our predecessors as inaccurate, when they have not recently occurred to our observation. Pursh says, under the T. cernuum, on the authority of Sir James E. Smith, that the figure of Catesby is so inaccurate it cannot be quoted without creating confusion, yet I have before me specimens agreeing minutely with the figure of Catesby, and collected in Pendleton at the head waters of the Saluda and Savannah rivers, precisely where Catesby informs us his plant was found. This is probably the original T. cernuum of Linnaeus, but that name has been transferred to another plant. (Sketch Bot. S. Carolina (Elliott) 1: 429. 1817.)

Current Scientific Name: Trillium maculatum Raf.

Current Common Name: Spotted Wakerobin, Trillium

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 50

Catesby Name: 

Solanum triphyllon flore hexapetalo tribus petalis purpureis erectis caeteris viridibus reflexis (Pluk. Phytog. Tab. 111.)

Description: 

This Plant rises with a single strait stalk, five or six inches high; from the top of which, spreads forth three broad pointed leaves, placed triangularly, and hanging down. These leaves have each three ribs, and are variegated with dark and lighter green. From between these leaves shoots forth the flower, consisting of three purple petals...

Location: 

They grow in shady thickets in most parts of Carolina.

Other Information: 

Although Linnaeus cited this plate as T. sessile, Dandy (The Sloane Herbarium. 1958 p. 112) and Freeman (Brittonia 27(1) 62: Revision of Trillium Subgenus Phyllantherum (Liliaceae)) both described it as T. maculatum. T. sessile as defined today, does not occur in coastal South Carolina.

Current Scientific Name: Uniola paniculata L.

Current Common Name: Seaoats

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 32

Catesby Name: 

The Sea-Side Oat - Gramen Myloicophoron Oxyphyllon Carolinianum, &c. (Pluk. Alma. p.137 Tab. 32)

Description: 

Its height is usually four and five feet.

Location: 

...sand hills; so near the Sea, that at high tides the water flows to it.

Current Scientific Name: Vachellia tortuosa (L.) Seigler & Ebinger

Current Common Name: Poponax, Wild Acacia, Twisted Acacia

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 44

Catesby Name: 

Arbor foliis pinnatis, spica pendula sericea (Alp. p. 2)

Description: 

This Plant grows usually to the height of eight or ten feet, composed of many stems, arising close together from the root: the branches grow into bendings, making angles at regular distances; from every of which bend, or angle, shoot forth its pinnated leaves, with very small lobes...

Other Information: 

Not identified by Ewan (1974) but listed as Acacia tortuosa (L.) Willd. by Howard & Staples (1983) and Wilbur (1990), which is a synonym of V. tortuosa - the name Reveal identified in 2009.

Current Scientific Name: Vanilla mexicana Mill.

Current Common Name: Mexican Vanilla

Catesby Reference: Appendix plate 7

Catesby Name: 

The Vanelloe - Volubilis siliquosa mexicana plantagini folio (Hist. Jam. 180. vol. I.)

Description: 

With this fruit the Spaniards perfume their chocolate, and employ Indians to cure the pods, which they do by laying them in the sun to dry; then dipping them in an oil drawn from the kernal of the Acajou nut. This perfume is so little agreeable to an English palate, that it is rarely made use of any more in our American plantations than at home, and therefore not cultivated by us.

Location: 

"They grow naturally in many places between the Tropicks, particularly at Boccatoro, lying in ten degrees north latitude."

Other Information: 

Ewan (1974) says Not accurately drawn.

Wilbur (1990) notes that a revision of the genus Vanilla is "much-needed" and that it has been suggested that Catesby's drawing may be V. inodora.

Current Scientific Name: Wedelia bahamensis (Britton) O.E.Schultz

Current Common Name: Rong Bush

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 92

Catesby Name: 

Chrysanthemum &c

Description: 

No description is given.

Current Scientific Name: Xanthosoma sagittifolia (L.) Schott

Current Common Name: Arrowleaf Elephant Ear

Catesby Reference: Volume II plate 45

Catesby Name: 

Arum maximum Aegyptiacum, quod vulgo Colocasia (C. Bauh. Pin. p. 195. Sloane Hist. Jam, Vol. I. p. 166.) Aurum Aegyptiacum, F. Column. Ecphr. Part. II. p. I.)

Description: 

The roots of this Plant are tuberous, with many small fibres growing from them ; some of.them weigh six or eight pound, of an irregular form ; the outside of a rusty brown colour, the inside white. The leaves grow out of the earth, with only their footstalks, to the height of four or five feet: they are shaped something like a heart, of a pale green, very ample, some of them being two feet wide, and more in length. The flower in form resembles that of the common Arum, tho' in colour different; the hood is green without, and of a light yellow within; the pistil is long and slender, of a light purple colour.

Location: 

... not caring to encrease much in Carolina, and will grow no where north of that colony; yet the Negros there (who are very fond of them) by annually taking up the roots to prevent rotting, get a small encrease.

Other Information: 

Ewan (1974) listed the plate as Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott but Howard & Staples (1983) say that it cannot be Colocasia because Colocasia has peltate leaves. Wilbur (1990) concurs saying that neither the leaf nor the inflorescence represent C. esculenta. They all list the plate as and unidentified Alocasia or Xanthosoma. Wilbur adds that the plant that Catesby refers to as having been introduced later, may be C. esculenta. Reveal (2009) however lists the plant as X. sagittifolium.

Current Scientific Name: Zanthoxylum clava-herculis L.

Current Common Name: Hercule's Club, Pepperbark, Southern Prickly Ash

Catesby Reference: Volume I plate 26

Catesby Name: 

The Pellitory or Tooth-ach Tree - Zanthoxylum spinosum, Lentisci, longioribus foliis, Euonymi fructu capsulari, ex Insula Jamaicensi (D. Banister. Phytogr.)

Description: 

used by the people inhabiting the sea coasts of Virginia and Carolina for the tooth-ach, which has given it its name.

Current Scientific Name: Zephyranthes atamasca (L.) Herb.

Current Common Name: Atamasco Lily

Catesby Reference: Appendix plate 12

Catesby Name: 

The Attamusco Lily - Lilio Narcissus Virginiensis

Description: 

This plant sends forth from a bulbose root its narrow Narciss-like leaves. The flowers grow singly on stalks about a foot in height...

Location: 

...Virginia and Carolina, where in particular places the pastures are as thick sprinkled with them and Martagons, as Cowslips and Orchis's are with us in England.


© 2010-12 Lisa J. Miner